Product Pathways - Chromatin Regulation / Epigenetics
Acetyl-Histone H4 (Lys16) (E2B8W) Rabbit mAb #13534
|13534S||100 µl (10 western blots)||---||In Stock||---|
|13534||carrier free and custom formulation / quantity||email request|
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|W||1:1000||Human, Mouse, Rat, Monkey||Endogenous||11||Rabbit IgG|
Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot.
Applications Key: W=Western Blotting, IP=Immunoprecipitation, IF-IC=Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), ChIP=Chromatin IP
Specificity / Sensitivity
Acetyl-Histone H4 (Lys16) (E2B8W) Rabbit mAb recognizes endogenous levels of histone H4 protein only when acetylated at Lys16. This antibody does not cross-react with other acetylated histone proteins.
Source / Purification
Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding acetylated Lys16 of human histone H4 protein.
Western blot analysis of extracts from HeLa, C2C12, and C6 cells, untreated (-) or treated with Trichostatin A (TSA) #9950 (1 μM, 18 hr; +), using Acetyl-Histone H4 (Lys16) (E2B8W) Rabbit mAb (upper) or Histone H4 (L64C1) Mouse mAb #2935 (lower).
Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of HeLa cells, untreated (left) or treated with Trichostatin A (TSA) #9950 (1 μM, overnight; right) using Acetyl-Histone H4 (Lys16) (E2B8W) Rabbit mAb (green). Actin filaments were labeled with DyLight™ 554 Phalloidin #13054 (red).
Chromatin immunoprecipitations were performed with cross-linked chromatin from 4 x 106 HeLa cells and either 10 μl of Acetyl-Histone H4 (Lys16) (E2B8W) Rabbit mAb or 2 μl of Normal Rabbit IgG #2729 using SimpleChIP® Enzymatic Chromatin IP Kit (Magnetic Beads) #9003. The enriched DNA was quantified by real-time PCR using SimpleChIP® Human GAPDH Exon 1 Primers #5516, SimpleChIP® Human RPL30 Exon 3 Primers #7014, and SimpleChIP® Human α Satellite Repeat Primers #4486. The amount of immunoprecipitated DNA in each sample is represented as signal relative to the total amount of input chromatin, which is equivalent to one.
Peptide ELISA data demonstrating Acetyl-Histone H4 (Lys16) (E2B8W) Rabbit mAb specificity. Antibody binding to pre-coated acetyl-histone H4 (Lys16) peptide in the presence of increasing concentrations of various competitor peptides is shown. As expected, only acetyl-histone H4 (Lys16) peptide competes away binding of Acetyl-Histone H4 (Lys16) (E2B8W) Rabbit mAb.
The nucleosome, made up of four core histone proteins (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4), is the primary building block of chromatin. Originally thought to function as a static scaffold for DNA packaging, histones have now been shown to be dynamic proteins, undergoing multiple types of post-translational modifications, including acetylation, phosphorylation, methylation, and ubiquitination (1,2). Histone acetylation occurs mainly on the amino-terminal tail domains of histones H2A (Lys5), H2B (Lys5, 12, 15, and 20), H3 (Lys9, 14, 18, 23, 27, 36 and 56), and H4 (Lys5, 8, 12, and 16) and is important for the regulation of histone deposition, transcriptional activation, DNA replication, recombination, and DNA repair (1-3). Hyper-acetylation of the histone tails neutralizes the positive charge of these domains and is believed to weaken histone-DNA and nucleosome-nucleosome interactions, thereby destabilizing chromatin structure and increasing the accessibility of DNA to various DNA-binding proteins (4,5). In addition, acetylation of specific lysine residues creates docking sites for a protein module called the bromodomain, which binds to acetylated lysine residues (6). Many transcription and chromatin regulatory proteins contain bromodomains and may be recruited to gene promoters, in part, through binding of acetylated histone tails. Histone acetylation is mediated by histone acetyltransferases (HATs), such as CBP/p300, GCN5L2, PCAF, and Tip60, which are recruited to genes by DNA-bound protein factors to facilitate transcriptional activation (3). Deacetylation, which is mediated by histone deacetylases (HDAC and sirtuin proteins), reverses the effects of acetylation and generally facilitates transcriptional repression (7,8).
- Peterson, C.L. and Laniel, M.A. (2004) Curr Biol 14, R546-51.
- Jaskelioff, M. and Peterson, C.L. (2003) Nat Cell Biol 5, 395-9.
- Roth, S.Y. et al. (2001) Annu Rev Biochem 70, 81-120.
- Workman, J.L. and Kingston, R.E. (1998) Annu Rev Biochem 67, 545-79.
- Hansen, J.C. et al. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 17637-41.
- Yang, X.J. (2004) Bioessays 26, 1076-87.
- Haberland, M. et al. (2009) Nat Rev Genet 10, 32-42.
- Haigis, M.C. and Sinclair, D.A. (2010) Annu Rev Pathol 5, 253-95.
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For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.
Tween® is a registered trademark of ICI Americas, Inc.
SimpleChIP® is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
DyLight™ is a trademark of Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc. and its subsidiaries.
Cell Signaling Technology® is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.