Product Pathways - TGF-beta/Smad Signaling
Phospho-Smad2 (Ser465/467) (138D4) Rabbit mAb #3108
|3108L||300 µl (30 western blots)||---||In Stock||---|
|3108S||100 µl (10 western blots)||---||In Stock||---|
|3108P||40 µl (4 western blots)||---||In Stock||---|
|3108||carrier free and custom formulation / quantity||email request|
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|W||1:1000||Human, Mouse, Rat, Mink||Endogenous||60||Rabbit IgG|
Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot.
Applications Key: W=Western Blotting
Specificity / Sensitivity
Phospho-Smad2 (Ser465/467) (138D4) Rabbit mAb detects endogenous levels of Smad2 only when dually phosphorylated at serines 465 and 467, and may detect Smad3 phosphorylated at the equivalent sites. This antibody does not cross-react with other Smad-related proteins.
Source / Purification
Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic phosphopeptide corresponding to residues surrounding Ser465/467 of human Smad2.
Members of the Smad family of signal transduction molecules are components of a critical intracellular pathway that transmit TGF-β signals from the cell surface into the nucleus. Three distinct classes of Smads have been defined: the receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads), which include Smad1, 2, 3, 5, and 8; the common-mediator Smad (co-Smad), Smad4; and the antagonistic or inhibitory Smads (I-Smads), Smad6 and 7 (1-5). Activated type I receptors associate with specific R-Smads and phosphorylate them on a conserved carboxy terminal SSXS motif. The phosphorylated R-Smad dissociates from the receptor and forms a heteromeric complex with the co-Smad (Smad4), allowing translocation of the complex to the nucleus. Once in the nucleus, Smads can target a variety of DNA binding proteins to regulate transcriptional responses (6-8).
Following stimulation by TGF-β, Smad2 and Smad3 become phosphorylated at their carboxy-termini (Ser465/467 on Smad2; Ser423/425 on Smad3) by the receptor kinase TGF-β R1 (9-11). Following phosphorylation, Smad2 and Smad3 form a heteromeric complex with the co-Smad family member Smad4. These complexes are translocated to the nucleus where they bind DNA and regulate gene transcription.
- Heldin, C.H. et al. (1997) Nature 390, 465-471.
- Attisano, L. and Wrana, J.L. (1998) Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 10, 188-194.
- Derynck, R. et al. (1998) Cell 95, 737-740.
- Massague, J. (1998) Annu. Rev. Biochem. 67, 753-791.
- Whitman, M. (1998) Genes Dev. 12, 2445-2462.
- Wu, G. et al. (2000) Science 287, 92-97.
- Attisano, L. and Wrana, J.L. (2002) Science 296, 1646-1647.
- Moustakas, A. et al. (2001) J. Cell Sci. 114, 4359-4369.
- Abdollah, S. et al. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 27678-27685.
- Soucheinytskyi, S. et al. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 28107-28115.
- Liu, X. et al. (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 10669-10674.
- Kong, B. et al. (2010) Oncogene 29, 5146-58. Applications: Western Blotting.
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For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.
Cell Signaling Technology® is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
This antibody is developed, validated, and produced by CST using in part technology under license (granting certain rights including those under U.S. Patents No. 5,675,063 and 7,429,487) from Epitomics, Inc.