Product Pathways - TGF-beta/Smad Signaling
TGF-β (56E4) Rabbit mAb #3709
|3709S||100 µl (10 western blots)||---||In Stock||---|
|3709||carrier free and custom formulation / quantity||email request|
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Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot.
Applications Key: W=Western Blotting
Species predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology: Mouse, Rat, Pig.
Specificity / Sensitivity
TGF-β Antibody detects recombinant TGF-β1 and TGF-β3 proteins. The antibody also detects endogenous levels of the TGF-β precursor proteins.
Source / Purification
Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to a region in the carboxy terminus of TGF-β1 protein.
Western blot analysis of extracts of HeLa cells, mock transfected or transfected with TGF-β1 precursor, using TGF-β (56E4) Rabbit mAb.
Western blot analysis of extracts from K-562, Saos-2 and 786-0 cells using TGF-β (56E4) Rabbit mAb.
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily members are critical regulators of cell proliferation and differentiation, developmental patterning and morphogenesis, and disease pathogenesis (1-4). TGF-β elicits signaling through three cell surface receptors: type I (RI), type II (RII), and type III (RIII). Type I and type II receptors are serine/threonine kinases that form a heteromeric complex. In response to ligand binding, the type II receptors form a stable complex with the type I receptors allowing phosphorylation and activation of type I receptor kinases (5). The type III receptor, also known as betaglycan, is a transmembrane proteoglycan with a large extracellular domain that binds TGF-β with high affinity but lacks a cytoplasmic signaling domain (6,7). Expression of the type III receptor can regulate TGF-β signaling through presentation of the ligand to the signaling complex. The only known direct TGF-β signaling effectors are the Smad family proteins, which transduce signals from the cell surface directly to the nucleus to regulate target gene transcription (8,9).
Three isoforms of TGF-β, designated TGF-β1, TGF-β2 and TGF-β3, are encoded by distinct genes and are expressed in a tissue specific manner (10). Each isoform is synthesized as a larger precursor protein containing a propeptide region that is removed prior to secretion. Mature TGF-β contains two polypeptides linked by disulfide bonds to form a protein of approximately 25 kDa.
- Massague, J. et al. (2000) Cell 103, 295-309.
- Caestecker, M.P. et al. (2000) J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 92, 1388-1402.
- Derynck, R. et al. (2001) Nature Genet. 29, 117-129.
- Miyazono, K. et al. (2000) Adv. Immunol. 75, 115-157.
- Derynck, R. et al. (1997) Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1333, F105-150.
- López-Casillas, F. et al. (1991) Cell 67, 785-795.
- Wang, X.F. et al. (1991) Cell 67, 797-805.
- Derynck, R. et al. (1998) Cell 95, 737-740.
- Massague, J. et al. (2000) Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 1, 169-178.
- Kingsley, D.M. (1994) Genes Dev. 8, 133-46.
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For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.
Cell Signaling Technology® is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
This antibody is developed, validated, and produced by CST using in part technology under license (granting certain rights including those under U.S. Patents No. 5,675,063 and 7,429,487) from Epitomics, Inc.