Chemical structure of Hydroxychloroquine Sulfate.
Hydroxychloroquine Sulfate is supplied as a lyophilized powder. For a 10 mM stock, reconstitute 5 mg of powder in 1.15 ml of water. Working concentrations and length of treatment can vary depending on the desired effect.
Store lyophilized at room temperature, desiccated. In lyophilized form, the chemical is stable for 24 months. Once in solution, store at -20ºC and use within 3 months to prevent loss of potency. Aliquot to avoid multiple freeze/thaw cycles.
Molecular Weight: 434.0 g/mol
Molecular Formula: C18H26ClN3O • H2SO4
Solubility: Soluble in water at 40 mg/ml.
Hydroxychloroquine Sulfate is a 4-aminoquinoline derivative of quinine known to sensitize cells to apoptosis (1,2). This small compound is an anti-malaria drug that has been found to be an effective treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and other rheumatic diseases (3). Current studies exhibit the diverse immunomodulatory effects that Hydroxychloroquine Sulfate can span, including metabolic, cardiovascular, antithrombotic, antineoplastic, and anti-infectious agent modulation. Prospective modes of action include inhibition of lysosome and autophagosome functions, subsequent immune activation, and interference of cytokine production via its ability to inhibit TLR binding and processing (4). Studies have shown that Hydroxychloroquine Sulfate inhibits IFN-β production (IC50 = 25 μM) by disrupting the cGAS/dsDNA complex (5). Hydroxychloroquine Sulfate can inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro and the antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects of this compound make it important when studying different viral diseases (6).
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