Flow cytometric analysis of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, untreated (left column) or treated with anti-CD3 (10
μg/ml, 72 hr) and anti-CD28 (5 μg/ml, 72 hr) (right column), using GITR (D5V7P) Rabbit mAb (PE Conjugate) (top row) or concentration-matched Rabbit (DA1E) mAb IgG XP® Isotype Control (PE Conjugate) #5742 (bottom row), and co-stained with CD3 (UCHT1) Mouse mAb (violetFluor™ 450 Conjugate) #61347.
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated GITR (D5V7P) Rabbit mAb #10419.
Supplied in PBS (pH 7.2), less than 0.1% sodium azide and 2 mg/ml BSA. Store at 4°C. Do not aliquot the antibody. Protect from light. Do not freeze.
NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalent grade water.
NOTE: When including fluorescent cellular dyes in your experiment (including viability dyes, DNA dyes, etc.), please refer to the dye product page for the recommended protocol. Visit www.cellsignal.com for a full listing of cellular dyes validated for use in flow cytometry.
NOTE: Count cells using a hemocytometer or alternative method.
NOTE: If using whole blood, lyse red blood cells and wash by centrifugation prior to Immunostaining.
NOTE: Optimal centrifugation conditions will vary depending upon cell type and reagent volume. Generally, 150-300g for 1-5 minutes will be sufficient to pellet the cells.
posted June 2017
revised June 2020
Protocol Id: 1504
GITR (D5V7P) Rabbit mAb (PE Conjugate) recognizes endogenous levels of total GITR protein.
Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with recombinant protein specific to the amino terminus of human GITR protein.
TNFRSF18, also known as glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor-receptor (TNFR)-related protein (GITR) and activation-inducible TNFR family receptor, encodes a type 1 membrane protein of the TNF-receptor superfamily (1). Three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported (2). GITR is an immune cell co-stimulatory receptor expressed constitutively at high levels on CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells (Tregs), at low levels on naïve and memory T cells, and is induced upon T cell activation (3-5). Studies show GITR can also be induced on NK cells, macrophages, and DCs (3,4,6). Although GITR does not have intrinsic enzymatic activity, TNFSF18 (also known as GITRL) expressed on antigen presenting cells binds to GITR, resulting in recruitment of TNFR-associated factor family members and activation of the NF-κB pathway in T cells (7). GITR ligation has been shown to play a role in CD8+ T cell activation, cytotoxicity, and memory T cell survival (8-10). In the thymus, GITR is thought to play a key role in dominant immunological self-tolerance through thymic Treg differentiation and expansion (11). Of note, GITR ligation inhibits Treg suppressive function (12-13) and promotes effector T cell resistance to Treg suppression (14-15). Due to the combined effects on both Treg suppression and effector cell activation, GITR represents a unique opportunity for immunotherapeutic intervention in cancer (16).
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