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- Additional protein information
- Analytical tools
PD-L1 (Extracellular Domain Specific) (D8T4X) Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 647 Conjugate) #41726
Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of HCC1954 (left), MDA-MB-231 (middle), and A549 (right) using PD-L1 (Extracellular Domain Specific) (D8T4X) (Alexa Fluor® 647 Conjugate) Rabbit mAb (Red). Blue pseudocolor = Propidium Iodide (PI)/RNase Staining Solution #4087.Learn more about how we get our images
Gallery: PD-L1 (Extracellular Domain Specific) (D8T4X) Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 647 Conjugate) #41726
A. Solutions and Reagents
NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalently purified water.
- 20X Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS): (9808) To prepare 1L 1X PBS: add 50 ml 20X PBS to 950 ml dH2O, mix. Adjust pH to 8.0.
- Formaldehyde: 16%, methanol free, Polysciences, Inc. (cat# 18814), use fresh and store opened vials at 4°C in dark, dilute in 1X PBS for use.
- Methanol, 100%
- Blocking Buffer (1X PBS / 5% normal goat serum (#5425) / 0.3% Triton™ X-100): To prepare 10 ml: add 0.5 ml normal goat serum and 0.5 ml 20X PBS to 9.0 ml dH2O, mix. While stirring, add 30 µl Triton™ X-100.
- Antibody Dilution Buffer (1X PBS / 1% BSA / 0.3% Triton X-100): To prepare 10 ml, add 30 µl Triton™ X-100 to 10 ml 1X PBS. Mix well then add 0.1 g BSA (9998), mix.
- Prolong® Gold AntiFade Reagent (#9071), Prolong® Gold AntiFade Reagent with DAPI (#8961).
B. Specimen Preparation - Cultured Cell Lines (IF-IC)
NOTE: Cells should be grown, treated, fixed and stained directly in multiwell plates, chamber slides or on coverslips.
- Aspirate liquid, then cover cells to a depth of 2–3 mm with 4% formaldehyde in 1X PBS.
NOTE: Formaldehyde is toxic, use only in fume hood.
- Allow cells to fix for 15 minutes at room temperature.
- Aspirate fixative, rinse three times in 1X PBS for 5 minutes each.
- Proceed with Immunostaining (Section C).
NOTE: All subsequent incubations should be carried out at room temperature unless otherwise noted in a humid light-tight box or covered dish/plate to prevent drying and fluorochrome fading.
- Methanol Permeabilization Step: Cover cells with ice-cold 100% methanol (use enough to cover completely to a depth of 3–5 mm, DO NOT LET DRY), incubate in methanol for 10 minutes at –20°C, rinse in 1X PBS for 5 minutes.
- Block specimen in Blocking Buffer for 60 minutes.
- While blocking, prepare primary antibody by diluting as indicated on datasheet in Antibody Dilution Buffer.
- Aspirate blocking solution, apply diluted primary antibody.
- Incubate overnight at 4°C.
- Rinse three times in 1X PBS for 5 minutes each.
- Coverslip slides with Prolong® Gold Antifade Reagent (#9071), Prolong® Gold AntiFade Reagent with DAPI (#8961).
- For best results examine specimens immediately using appropriate excitation wavelength. For long term storage, store slides flat at 4°C protected from light.
posted November 2006
revised December 2010
Flow Cytometry, Extracellular Epitope Protocol for Direct Conjugates
A. Solutions and Reagents
NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalent grade water.
- 20X Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS): (#9808) To prepare 1 L 1X PBS: add 50 ml 20X PBS to 950 ml dH2O, mix.
- Formaldehyde (methanol free).
- Incubation Buffer: Dissolve 0.5 g bovine serum albumin (BSA) (#9998) in 100mL 1X PBS. Store at 4°C.
NOTE: If live cell staining is desired, proceed to Section C.
- Collect cells by centrifugation and aspirate supernatant.
- Resuspend cells in 0.5-1 ml PBS. Add formaldehyde to obtain a final concentration of 4% formaldehyde.
- Fix for 15 minutes at room temperature.
- Wash by centrifugation with excess 1X PBS. Discard supernatant in appropriate waste container. Resuspend cells in 1X PBS.
- Proceed with staining or store cells at +4°C in PBS with 0.1% sodium azide.
NOTE: Count cells using a hemocytometer or alternative method.
- Aliquot desired number of cells into tubes or wells.
- If necessary, centrifuge to remove excess PBS.
- Resuspend cells in 100 µl of diluted antibody conjugate (prepared in incubation buffer at the recommended dilution).
- Incubate for 30-60 minutes at room temperature.
- Wash by centrifugation in incubation buffer. Discard supernatant. Repeat.
- Resuspend cells in 1X PBS and analyze on flow cytometer; alternatively, for DNA staining, proceed to Section D.
D. Optional DNA Dye
- Resuspend cells in 0.5 ml of DNA dye (e.g. Propidium Iodide (PI)/RNase Staining Solution #4087).
- Incubate for at least 5 min at room temperature.
- Analyze cells in DNA staining solution on flow cytometer.
posted January 2009
revised June 2017
PD-L1 (Extracellular Domain Specific) (D8T4X) Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 647 Conjugate) recognizes endogenous levels of total PD-L1 protein.Species Reactivity: Human
Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with mammalian cells expressing full length PD-L1 protein.
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 647 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated PD-L1 (Extracellular Domain Specific) (D8T4X) Rabbit mAb #86744.
Programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1, B7-H1, CD274) is a member of the B7 family of cell surface ligands that regulate T cell activation and immune responses. The PD-L1 ligand binds the PD-1 transmembrane receptor and inhibits T cell activation. PD-L1 was discovered following a search for novel B7 protein homologs and was later shown to be expressed by antigen presenting cells, activated T cells, and tissues including placenta, heart, and lung (1-3). Similar in structure to related B7 family members, PD-L1 protein contains extracellular IgV and IgC domains and a short, cytoplasmic region. Research studies demonstrate that PD-L1 is expressed in several tumor types, including melanoma, ovary, colon, lung, breast, and renal cell carcinomas (4-6). Expression of PD-L1 in cancer is associated with tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, which mediate PD-L1 expression through the release of interferon gamma (7). Additional research links PD-L1 expression to cancers associated with viral infections (8,9).
For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures. Cell Signaling Technology is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc. Alexa Fluor is a registered trademark of Life Technologies Corporation. The Alexa Fluor dye antibody conjugates in this product are sold under license from Life Technologies Corporation for research use only, except for use in combination with DNA microarrays. The Alexa Fluor® dyes (except for Alexa Fluor® 430 dye) are covered by pending and issued patents. Alexa Fluor® is a registered trademark of Molecular Probes, Inc.