Flow cytometric analysis of Jurkat cells (blue) and primary CD4+ T cells (green) using TIM-3 (D5D5R™) XP® Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 488 Conjugate).
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated TIM-3 (D5D5R™) XP® Rabbit mAb #45208.
Supplied in PBS (pH 7.2), less than 0.1% sodium azide and 2 mg/ml BSA. Store at 4°C. Do not aliquot the antibody. Protect from light. Do not freeze.
NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalent grade water.
NOTE: When including fluorescent cellular dyes in your experiment (including viability dyes, DNA dyes, etc.), please refer to the dye product page for the recommended protocol. Visit www.cellsignal.com for a full listing of cellular dyes validated for use in flow cytometry.
NOTE: Count cells using a hemocytometer or alternative method.
NOTE: If using whole blood, lyse red blood cells and wash by centrifugation prior to Immunostaining.
NOTE: Optimal centrifugation conditions will vary depending upon cell type and reagent volume. Generally, 150-300g for 1-5 minutes will be sufficient to pellet the cells.
posted June 2017
revised June 2020
Protocol Id: 1504
TIM-3 (D5D5R™) XP® Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 488 Conjugate) recognizes endogenous levels of total TIM-3 protein.
Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with recombinant protein specific to the extracellular domain of human TIM-3 protein.
T cell Ig- and mucin-domain-containing molecules (TIMs) are a family of transmembrane proteins expressed by various immune cells. TIM-3 is an inhibitory molecule that is induced following T cell activation (1-3 ). TIM-3 is expressed by exhausted T cells in the settings of chronic infection and cancer (4,5), and tumor-infiltrating T cells that coexpress PD-1 and TIM-3 exhibit the most severe exhausted phenotype (5). Tumor-infiltrating dendritic cells (DCs) also express TIM-3. TIM-3 expression on DCs was found to suppress innate immunity by reducing the immunogenicity of nucleic acids released by dying tumor cells (6). Research studies show that heterodimerization of TIM-3 with CEACAM-1 is critical for the inhibitory function of TIM-3, and co-blockade of TIM-3 and CEACAM-1 enhanced antitumor responses in a mouse model of colorectal cancer (7). In addition, blockade of TIM-3 in mouse models of autoimmunity enhanced the severity of disease (1). Finally, binding of Galectin-9 to TIM-3 expressed by Th1 cells induces T cell death (8).
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