Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human breast carcinoma, using AKT2 (54G8) Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody (IHC Specific) #4057 preincubated with an irrelevant control peptide (left) or AKT2 Blocking Peptide (IHC Specific) (right).
For immunohistochemistry, add twice the volume of peptide as volume of antibody used in 100 µl total volume. Incubate for a minimum of 30 minutes prior to adding the entire volume to the slide. Recommended antibody dilutions can be found on the relevant product data sheet.
Supplied in 20 mM potassium phosphate (pH 7.0), 50 mM NaCl, 0.1 mM EDTA, 1 mg/ml BSA and 5% glycerol. Store at –20°C.
This peptide can be used to block Akt2 (54G8) Rabbit mAb (IHC Specific) #4057.
The quality of the peptide was evaluated by reversed-phase HPLC and by mass spectrometry. The peptide blocks Akt2 (54G8) Rabbit mAb (IHC Specific) #4057 signal in immunohistochemistry.
Akt, also referred to as PKB or Rac, plays a critical role in controlling survival and apoptosis (1-3). This protein kinase is activated by insulin and various growth and survival factors to function in a wortmannin-sensitive pathway involving PI3 kinase (2,3). Akt is activated by phospholipid binding and activation loop phosphorylation at Thr308 by PDK1 (4) and by phosphorylation within the carboxy terminus at Ser473. The previously elusive PDK2 responsible for phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 has been identified as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in a rapamycin-insensitive complex with rictor and Sin1 (5,6). Akt promotes cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis through phosphorylation and inactivation of several targets, including Bad (7), forkhead transcription factors (8), c-Raf (9), and caspase-9. PTEN phosphatase is a major negative regulator of the PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway (10). LY294002 is a specific PI3 kinase inhibitor (11). Another essential Akt function is the regulation of glycogen synthesis through phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3α and β (12,13). Akt may also play a role in insulin stimulation of glucose transport (12). In addition to its role in survival and glycogen synthesis, Akt is involved in cell cycle regulation by preventing GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of cyclin D1 (14) and by negatively regulating the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p27 Kip1 (15) and p21 Waf1/Cip1 (16). Akt also plays a critical role in cell growth by directly phosphorylating mTOR in a rapamycin-sensitive complex containing raptor (17). More importantly, Akt phosphorylates and inactivates tuberin (TSC2), an inhibitor of mTOR within the mTOR-raptor complex (18,19).
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