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REACTIVITY SENSITIVITY MW (kDa) Isotype
M Endogenous 15 Rabbit IgG
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Immunoprecipitation

Immunoprecipitation of CART from mouse brain extracts using Rabbit (DA1E) mAb IgG XP® Isotype Control #3900 (lane 2) or CART (D6L8J) Rabbit mAb (lane 3). Lane 1 is 10% input. Western blot analysis was performed using CART (D6M2M) Rabbit mAb #14437.

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Immunofluorescence (Frozen)

Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of the hypothalamic region of normal mouse brain using CART (D6L8J) Rabbit mAb (green) and β3-Tubulin (TU-20) Mouse mAb #4466 (red). Blue pseudocolor = DRAQ5® #4084 (fluorescent DNA dye).

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Immunoprecipitation for Native Proteins

This protocol is intended for immunoprecipitation of native proteins for analysis by western immunoblot or kinase activity.

A. Solutions and Reagents

NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalent grade water.

  1. 20X Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS): (#9808) To prepare 1 L of 1X PBS, add 50 ml 20X PBS to 950 ml dH2O, mix.
  2. 10X Cell Lysis Buffer: (#9803) To prepare 10 ml of 1X cell lysis buffer, add 1 ml cell lysis buffer to 9 ml dH2O, mix.

    NOTE: Add 1 mM PMSF (#8553) immediately prior to use.

  3. 3X SDS Sample Buffer: Blue Loading Pack (#7722) or Red Loading Pack (#7723) Prepare fresh 3X reducing loading buffer by adding 1/10 volume 30X DTT to 1 volume of 3X SDS loading buffer.
  4. Protein A Agarose Beads: Use Protein A (#9863) for rabbit IgG immunoprecipitation.
  5. 10X Kinase Buffer (for kinase assays): (#9802) To Prepare 1 ml of 1X kinase buffer, add 100 µl 10X kinase buffer to 900 µl dH2O, mix.
  6. ATP (10 mM) (for kinase assays): (#9804) To prepare 0.5 ml of ATP (200 µM), add 10 µl ATP (10 mM) to 490 µl 1X kinase buffer.

B. Preparing Cell Lysates

  1. Aspirate media. Treat cells by adding fresh media containing regulator for desired time.
  2. To harvest cells under nondenaturing conditions, remove media and rinse cells once with ice-cold 1X PBS.
  3. Remove PBS and add 0.5 ml ice-cold 1X cell lysis buffer to each plate (10 cm) and incubate on ice for 5 min.
  4. Scrape cells off the plate and transfer to microcentrifuge tubes. Keep on ice.
  5. Sonicate on ice three times for 5 sec each.
  6. Microcentrifuge for 10 min at 4°C, 14,000 x g and transfer the supernatant to a new tube. The supernatant is the cell lysate. If necessary, lysate can be stored at -80°C.

C. Immunoprecipitation

Cell Lysate Pre-Clearing (Optional)

  1. Vortex to mix beads.
  2. Add 10–30 µl of 50% Protein A agarose bead slurry to 200 µl cell lysate at 1 mg/ml.
  3. Incubate with rotation at 4°C for 30–60 min.
  4. Microcentrifuge for 10 min at 4°C. Transfer the supernatant to a fresh tube.
  5. Proceed to immunoprecipitation below.

Immunoprecipitation

  1. Add primary antibody (at the appropriate dilution as recommended in the product datasheet) to 200 µl cell lysate at 1 mg/ml. Incubate with rotation overnight at 4°C.
  2. Add protein A agarose (10–30 µl of 50% bead slurry). Incubate with rotation for 1–3 hr at 4°C.
  3. Microcentrifuge for 30 sec at 4°C. Wash pellet five times with 500 µl of 1X cell lysis buffer. Keep on ice between washes.
  4. Proceed to sample analysis by western immunoblotting or kinase activity (section D).

D. Sample Analysis

Proceed to one of the following specific set of steps.

For Analysis by Western Immunoblotting

  1. Resuspend the pellet with 20 µl 3X SDS sample buffer. Vortex, then microcentrifuge for 30 sec at 14,000 x g.
  2. Heat the sample to 95–100°C for 2-5 min and microcentrifuge for 1 min at 14,000 x g.
  3. Load the sample (15–30 µl) on a 4–20% gel for SDS-PAGE.
  4. Analyze sample by western blot (see Western Immunoblotting Protocol).

NOTE: To minimize masking caused by denatured IgG heavy chains (~50 kDa), we recommend using Mouse Anti-Rabbit IgG (Light-Chain Specific) (L57A3) mAb (#3677) or Mouse Anti-Rabbit IgG (Conformation Specific) (L27A9) mAb (#3678) (or HRP conjugate #5127). To minimize masking caused by denatured IgG light chains (~25 kDa), we recommend using Mouse Anti-Rabbit IgG (Conformation Specific) (L27A9) mAb (#3678) (or HRP conjugate #5127).

For Analysis by Kinase Assay

  1. Wash pellet twice with 500 µl 1X kinase buffer. Keep on ice.
  2. Suspend pellet in 40 µl 1X kinase buffer supplemented with 200 µM ATP and appropriate substrate.
  3. Incubate for 30 min at 30°C.
  4. Terminate reaction with 20 µl 3X SDS sample buffer. Vortex, then microcentrifuge for 30 sec.
  5. Transfer supernatant containing phosphorylated substrate to another tube.
  6. Heat the sample to 95–100°C for 2–5 min and microcentrifuge for 1 min at 14,000 x g.
  7. Load the sample (15–30 µl) on SDS-PAGE (4–20%).

posted December 2008

revised November 2013

Protocol Id: 409
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Immunofluorescence (Frozen)

A. Solutions and Reagents

NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalent grade water.

  1. 20X Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS): (9808) To prepare 1L 1X PBS: add 50 ml 20X PBS to 950 ml dH2O, mix. Adjust pH to 8.0.
  2. Formaldehyde: 16%, methanol free, Polysciences, Inc. (cat# 18814), use fresh and store opened vials at 4°C in dark, dilute in 1X PBS for use.
  3. Blocking Buffer: (1X PBS / 5% normal serum / 0.3% Triton™ X-100): To prepare 10 ml, add 0.5 ml normal serum from the same species as the secondary antibody (e.g., Normal Goat Serum (#5425) to 9.5 ml 1X PBS) and mix well. While stirring, add 30 µl Triton™ X-100.
  4. Antibody Dilution Buffer: (1X PBS / 1% BSA / 0.3% Triton™ X-100): To prepare 10 ml, add 30 µl Triton™ X-100 to 10 ml 1X PBS. Mix well then add 0.1 g BSA (#9998), mix.
  5. Recommended Fluorochrome-conjugated Anti-Rabbit secondary antibodies:

    NOTE: When using any primary or fluorochrome-conjugated secondary antibody for the first time, titrate the antibody to determine which dilution allows for the strongest specific signal with the least background for your sample.

  6. Prolong® Gold AntiFade Reagent (#9071), Prolong® Gold AntiFade Reagent with DAPI (#8961).

B. Specimen Preparation - Frozen/Cryostat Sections (IF-F)

  1. For fixed frozen tissue proceed with Immunostaining (Section C).
  2. For fresh, unfixed frozen tissue, please fix immediately, as follows:
    1. Cover sections with 4% formaldehyde dilute in 1X PBS.

      NOTE: Formaldehyde is toxic, use only in fume hood.

    2. Allow sections to fix for 15 minutes at room temperature.
    3. Aspirate liquid, rinse three times in 1X PBS for 5 minutes each.
    4. Proceed with Immunostaining (Section C).

C. Immunostaining

NOTE: All subsequent incubations should be carried out at room temperature unless otherwise noted in a humid light-tight box or covered dish/plate to prevent drying and fluorochrome fading.

  1. Block specimen in Blocking Buffer for 60 min.
  2. While blocking, prepare primary antibody by diluting as indicated on datasheet in Antibody Dilution Buffer.
  3. Aspirate blocking solution, apply diluted primary antibody.
  4. Incubate overnight at 4°C.
  5. Rinse three times in 1X PBS for 5 min each.
  6. Incubate specimen in fluorochrome-conjugated secondary antibody diluted in Antibody Dilution Buffer for 1–2 hr at room temperature in the dark.
  7. Rinse three times in 1X PBS for 5 min each.
  8. Coverslip slides with Prolong® Gold Antifade Reagent (#9071) or Prolong® Gold Antifade Reagent with DAPI (#8961).
  9. For best results, allow mountant to cure overnight at room temperature. For long-term storage, store slides flat at 4°C protected from light.

posted November 2006

revised July 2016

Protocol Id: 151

Product Usage Information

Application Dilutions
Immunoprecipitation 1:50
Immunofluorescence (Frozen) 1:100

Storage: Supplied in 10 mM sodium HEPES (pH 7.5), 150 mM NaCl, 100 µg/ml BSA, 50% glycerol and less than 0.02% sodium azide. Store at –20°C. Do not aliquot the antibody.

Specificity / Sensitivity

CART (D6L8J) Rabbit mAb recognizes endogenous levels of total CART protein. Based on IP data and western blot results using lysates from cells overexpressing CART, this antibody appears to be specific to the precursor form of CART.


Species Reactivity: Mouse
Species predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology: Human

Source / Purification

Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with recombinant protein specific to full-length human CART protein.

Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides are neurotransmitters of 39 and 47 amino acids that are involved in a variety of physiological processes. The CART precursor, a polypeptide of 116 residues, requires prohormone/proprotein convertase-mediated endoproteolytic cleavage to produce the two active peptides (1). CART peptides are found in several neuroendocrine tissues such as the brain, pituitary, adrenals, and pancreas (2). Hypothalamic CART is regulated by leptin, and plays a role in appetite and feeding behavior (3). Mesolimbic CART is regulated by CREB and may play a role in drug abuse behaviors by mediating some of CREB effects (4). Pancreatic CART is found in islet endocrine cells and parasympathetic and sensory nerves. It inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and has been found to be up-regulated in beta cells in animal model of diabetes (5). A missense mutation in the corresponding CART gene can correlate with susceptibility to obesity and reduced resting energy expenditure (6).


1.  Stein, J. et al. (2006) Peptides 27, 1919-25.

2.  Hunter, R.G. and Kuhar, M.J. (2003) Curr Drug Targets CNS Neurol Disord 2, 201-5.

3.  Thim, L. et al. (1998) Int J Biochem Cell Biol 30, 1281-4.

4.  Kuhar, M.J. et al. (2005) AAPS J 7, E259-65.

5.  Wierup, N. and Sundler, F. (2006) Peptides 27, 2031-6.

6.  del Giudice, E.M. et al. (2001) Diabetes 50, 2157-60.


Entrez-Gene Id 9607
Swiss-Prot Acc. Q16568


For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.
Cell Signaling Technology is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
XP is a registered trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
DRAQ5 is a registered trademark of Biostatus Limited.

14547
CART (D6L8J) Rabbit mAb