Flow cytometric analysis of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, untreated (left) or PHA-treated (1 ug/ml, 72 hr; right), using CTLA-4 (D4E9I) Rabbit mAb and co-stained with a CD3 antibody. Anti-rabbit IgG (H+L), F(ab')2 Fragment (Alexa Fluor® 647 Conjugate) #4414 was used as a secondary antibody. Analysis was performed on cells in the lymphocyte gate.Learn more about how we get our images.
NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalent grade water.
NOTE: If live cell staining is desired, proceed to Section C.
NOTE: Count cells using a hemocytometer or alternative method.
posted January 2009
revised June 2017
Protocol Id: 133
Supplied in 10 mM sodium HEPES (pH 7.5), 150 mM NaCl, 100 µg/ml BSA, 50% glycerol and less than 0.02% sodium azide. Store at –20°C. Do not aliquot the antibody.
CTLA-4 (D4E9I) Rabbit mAb recognizes endogenous levels of total CTLA-4 protein.
Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Asp100 of human CTLA-4 protein.
Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte protein 4 (CTLA-4, CD152) is an Ig superfamily member that negatively regulates early T cell activation (1-4). The CTLA-4 protein is primarily expressed on T cells, including CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, CD4+ helper T cells, and CD4+/FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (1,2). CTLA-4 protein competes with CD28 for B7.1 (CD80) and B7.2 (CD86) binding at the cell surface, which results in the down regulation of T cell activity (5). The activation of SHP-2 and PP2A downstream of CTLA-4 attenuates TCR signaling (6). Research studies indicate that CTLA4 knockout mice display lymphoproliferative disorders leading to early death, confirming the role of CTLA-4 as a negative regulator of T cells (7). Mutations in the corresponding CTLA4 gene are associated with multiple disorders, including insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, Graves disease, Hashimoto thyroiditis, celiac disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, and type V autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (8,9). Additional studies demonstrate that CTLA-4 blockade is an effective strategy for tumor immunotherapy (10-12).
Cell Signaling Technology is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc. Alexa Fluor is a registered trademark of Life Technologies Corporation.
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