|Immunofluorescence (Frozen)||1:200 - 1:800|
NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalent grade water.
Recommended Fluorochrome-conjugated Anti-Rabbit secondary antibodies:
NOTE: When using any primary or fluorochrome-conjugated secondary antibody for the first time, titrate the antibody to determine which dilution allows for the strongest specific signal with the least background for your sample.
Cover sections with 4% formaldehyde dilute in 1X PBS.
NOTE: Formaldehyde is toxic, use only in fume hood.
NOTE: All subsequent incubations should be carried out at room temperature unless otherwise noted in a humid light-tight box or covered dish/plate to prevent drying and fluorochrome fading.
posted November 2006
revised July 2016
Protocol Id: 151
Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with recombinant protein specific to the extracellular domain of mouse CTLA-4 protein.
Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte protein 4 (CTLA-4, CD152) is an Ig superfamily member that negatively regulates early T cell activation (1-4). The CTLA-4 protein is primarily expressed on T cells, including CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, CD4+ helper T cells, and CD4+/FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (1,2). CTLA-4 protein competes with CD28 for B7.1 (CD80) and B7.2 (CD86) binding at the cell surface, which results in the downregulation of T cell activity (5). The activation of SHP-2 and PP2A downstream of CTLA-4 attenuates TCR signaling (6). Research studies indicate that CTLA4 knockout mice display lymphoproliferative disorders leading to early death, confirming the role of CTLA-4 as a negative regulator of T cells (7). Mutations in the corresponding CTLA4 gene are associated with multiple disorders, including insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, Graves' disease, Hashimoto thyroiditis, celiac disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, and type V autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (8,9). Additional studies demonstrate that CTLA-4 blockade is an effective strategy for tumor immunotherapy (10-12).
UniProt ID: P09793
Entrez-Gene Id: 12477
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