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90205
GPNMB (E7U1Z) Rabbit mAb
Primary Antibodies
Monoclonal Antibody

GPNMB (E7U1Z) Rabbit mAb #90205

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  1. WB
  2. IF
  3. F
Western Blotting Image 1: GPNMB (E7U1Z) Rabbit mAb

Western blot analysis of extracts from SIM-A9, 4T1, and EL4 cells using GPNMB (E7U1Z) Rabbit mAb (upper) and β-Actin (D6A8) Rabbit mAb #8457 (lower). As expected, GPNMB protein is not expressed in either 4T1 or EL4 cells.

Western Blotting Image 2: GPNMB (E7U1Z) Rabbit mAb

Western blot analysis of extracts from B16-F10 cells, mock transfected (-) or transfected with siRNA targeting mouse GPNMB (+), using GPNMB (E7U1Z) Rabbit mAb (upper) and GAPDH (D16H11) XP® Rabbit mAb #5174 (lower).

Western Blotting Image 3: GPNMB (E7U1Z) Rabbit mAb

Western blot analysis of extracts from B16-F10 cells, untreated (-) or treated with PNGase F (+), using GPNMB (E7U1Z) Rabbit mAb (upper) and β-Actin (D6A8) Rabbit mAb #8457 (lower).

Western Blotting Image 4: GPNMB (E7U1Z) Rabbit mAb

Western blot analysis of extracts from 293T cells, mock transfected (-) or transfected (+) with constructs expressing Myc/DDK-tagged full-length mouse GPNMB protein (mGPNMB-Myc/DDK) and Myc/DDK-tagged full-length human GPNMB protein (hGPNMB-Myc/DDK), using GPNMB (E7U1Z) Rabbit mAb (upper), DYKDDDDK Tag Antibody #2368 (middle), and β-Actin (D6A8) Rabbit mAb #8457 (lower).

Immunofluorescence Image 1: GPNMB (E7U1Z) Rabbit mAb

Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of brain from the 5XFAD mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease using GPNMB (E7U1Z) Rabbit mAb (green). After blocking free secondary antibody binding sites with Rabbit (DA1E) mAb IgG XP® Isotype Control #3900, the tissue was then labeled using HS1 (D5A9) XP® Rabbit mAb (Rodent Specific) (Alexa Fluor® 488 Conjugate) #68206 (red pseudocolor) and β-Amyloid (D54D2) XP® Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 647 Conjugate) #42284 (cyan pseudocolor). Sections were mounted in ProLong® Gold Antifade Reagent with DAPI #8961 (blue).

Immunofluorescence Image 1: GPNMB (E7U1Z) Rabbit mAb

Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of B16-F10 cells (left, positive) or 4T1 cells (right, negative) using GPNMB (E7U1Z) Rabbit mAb (green). Actin filaments were labeled with DyLight™ 554 Phalloidin #13054 (red). Samples were mounted in ProLong® Gold Antifade Reagent with DAPI #8961 (blue).

Flow Cytometry Image 1: GPNMB (E7U1Z) Rabbit mAb

Flow cytometric analysis of 4T1 cells (blue, negative) and B16-F10 cells (green, positive) using GPNMB (E7U1Z) Rabbit mAb (solid lines) or a concentration-matched Rabbit (DA1E) mAb IgG XP® Isotype Control #3900 (dashed lines). Anti-rabbit IgG (H+L), F(ab')2 Fragment (Alexa Fluor® 488 Conjugate) #4412 was used as a secondary antibody.

To Purchase # 90205S
Product # Size Price
90205S
100 µl $ 276

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Supporting Data

REACTIVITY M
SENSITIVITY Endogenous
MW (kDa) 90, 100
Source/Isotype Rabbit IgG

Application Key:

  • W-Western
  • IP-Immunoprecipitation
  • IHC-Immunohistochemistry
  • ChIP-Chromatin Immunoprecipitation
  • IF-Immunofluorescence
  • F-Flow Cytometry
  • E-P-ELISA-Peptide

Species Cross-Reactivity Key:

  • H-Human
  • M-Mouse
  • R-Rat
  • Hm-Hamster
  • Mk-Monkey
  • Mi-Mink
  • C-Chicken
  • Dm-D. melanogaster
  • X-Xenopus
  • Z-Zebrafish
  • B-Bovine
  • Dg-Dog
  • Pg-Pig
  • Sc-S. cerevisiae
  • Ce-C. elegans
  • Hr-Horse
  • All-All Species Expected

Product Usage Information

Application Dilution
Western Blotting 1:1000
Immunofluorescence (Frozen) 1:400
Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry) 1:50 - 1:200
Flow Cytometry 1:50 - 1:200

Storage

Supplied in 10 mM sodium HEPES (pH 7.5), 150 mM NaCl, 100 µg/ml BSA, 50% glycerol and less than 0.02% sodium azide. Store at –20°C. Do not aliquot the antibody.

Protocol

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Western Blotting Protocol

For western blots, incubate membrane with diluted primary antibody in 5% w/v BSA, 1X TBS, 0.1% Tween® 20 at 4°C with gentle shaking, overnight.

NOTE: Please refer to primary antibody product webpage for recommended antibody dilution.

A. Solutions and Reagents

From sample preparation to detection, the reagents you need for your Western Blot are now in one convenient kit: #12957 Western Blotting Application Solutions Kit

NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalent grade water.

  1. 20X Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS): (#9808) To prepare 1 L 1X PBS: add 50 ml 20X PBS to 950 ml dH2O, mix.
  2. 10X Tris Buffered Saline (TBS): (#12498) To prepare 1 L 1X TBS: add 100 ml 10X to 900 ml dH2O, mix.
  3. 1X SDS Sample Buffer: Blue Loading Pack (#7722) or Red Loading Pack (#7723) Prepare fresh 3X reducing loading buffer by adding 1/10 volume 30X DTT to 1 volume of 3X SDS loading buffer. Dilute to 1X with dH2O.
  4. 10X Tris-Glycine SDS Running Buffer: (#4050) To prepare 1 L 1X running buffer: add 100 ml 10X running buffer to 900 ml dH2O, mix.
  5. 10X Tris-Glycine Transfer Buffer: (#12539) To prepare 1 L 1X Transfer Buffer: add 100 ml 10X Transfer Buffer to 200 ml methanol + 700 ml dH2O, mix.
  6. 10X Tris Buffered Saline with Tween® 20 (TBST): (#9997) To prepare 1 L 1X TBST: add 100 ml 10X TBST to 900 ml dH2O, mix.
  7. Nonfat Dry Milk: (#9999).
  8. Blocking Buffer: 1X TBST with 5% w/v nonfat dry milk; for 150 ml, add 7.5 g nonfat dry milk to 150 ml 1X TBST and mix well.
  9. Wash Buffer: (#9997) 1X TBST.
  10. Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA): (#9998).
  11. Primary Antibody Dilution Buffer: 1X TBST with 5% BSA; for 20 ml, add 1.0 g BSA to 20 ml 1X TBST and mix well.
  12. Biotinylated Protein Ladder Detection Pack: (#7727).
  13. Prestained Protein Marker, Broad Range (11-190 kDa): (#13953).
  14. Blotting Membrane and Paper: (#12369) This protocol has been optimized for nitrocellulose membranes. Pore size 0.2 µm is generally recommended.
  15. Secondary Antibody Conjugated to HRP: Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked Antibody (#7074).
  16. Detection Reagent: SignalFire™ ECL Reagent (#6883).

B. Protein Blotting

A general protocol for sample preparation.

  1. Treat cells by adding fresh media containing regulator for desired time.
  2. Aspirate media from cultures; wash cells with 1X PBS; aspirate.
  3. Lyse cells by adding 1X SDS sample buffer (100 µl per well of 6-well plate or 500 µl for a 10 cm diameter plate). Immediately scrape the cells off the plate and transfer the extract to a microcentrifuge tube. Keep on ice.
  4. Sonicate for 10–15 sec to complete cell lysis and shear DNA (to reduce sample viscosity).
  5. Heat a 20 µl sample to 95–100°C for 5 min; cool on ice.
  6. Microcentrifuge for 5 min.
  7. Load 20 µl onto SDS-PAGE gel (10 cm x 10 cm).

    NOTE: Loading of prestained molecular weight markers (#13953, 5 µl/lane) to verify electrotransfer and biotinylated protein ladder (#7727, 10 µl/lane) to determine molecular weights are recommended.

  8. Electrotransfer to nitrocellulose membrane (#12369).

C. Membrane Blocking and Antibody Incubations

NOTE: Volumes are for 10 cm x 10 cm (100 cm2) of membrane; for different sized membranes, adjust volumes accordingly.

I. Membrane Blocking

  1. (Optional) After transfer, wash nitrocellulose membrane with 25 ml TBS for 5 min at room temperature.
  2. Incubate membrane in 25 ml of blocking buffer for 1 hr at room temperature.
  3. Wash three times for 5 min each with 15 ml of TBST.

II. Primary Antibody Incubation

  1. Incubate membrane and primary antibody (at the appropriate dilution and diluent as recommended in the product webpage) in 10 ml primary antibody dilution buffer with gentle agitation overnight at 4°C.
  2. Wash three times for 5 min each with 15 ml of TBST.
  3. Incubate membrane with Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked Antibody (#7074 at 1:2000) and anti-biotin, HRP-linked Antibody (#7075 at 1:1000–1:3000) to detect biotinylated protein markers in 10 ml of blocking buffer with gentle agitation for 1 hr at room temperature.
  4. Wash three times for 5 min each with 15 ml of TBST.
  5. Proceed with detection (Section D).

D. Detection of Proteins

Directions for Use:

  1. Wash membrane-bound HRP (antibody conjugate) three times for 5 minutes in TBST.
  2. Prepare 1X SignalFire™ ECL Reagent (#6883) by diluting one part 2X Reagent A and one part 2X Reagent B (e.g. for 10 ml, add 5 ml Reagent A and 5 ml Reagent B). Mix well.
  3. Incubate substrate with membrane for 1 minute, remove excess solution (membrane remains wet), wrap in plastic and expose to X-ray film.

* Avoid repeated exposure to skin.

posted June 2005

revised June 2020

Protocol Id: 10

Immunofluorescence (Frozen Tissues with Citrate Retrieval)

A. Solutions and Reagents

NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalent grade water.

  1. 20X Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS): (#9808) To prepare 1L 1X PBS: add 50 ml 20X PBS to 950 ml dH2O, mix. Adjust pH to 8.0.
  2. Formaldehyde: 16%, methanol free, Polysciences, Inc. (cat# 18814), use fresh and store opened vials at 4°C in dark, dilute in 1X PBS for use.
  3. 1X Citrate Unmasking Solution: To prepare 250 mL of 1X citrate unmasking solution, dilute 25 ml of SignalStain® Citrate Unmasking Solution (10X) (#14746) with 225 mL of dH2O.
  4. Blocking Buffer: (1X PBS / 5% normal serum / 0.3% Triton X-100): To prepare 10 ml, add 0.5 ml normal serum from the same species as the secondary antibody (e.g., Normal Goat Serum (#5425) to 9.5 ml 1X PBS) and mix well. While stirring, add 30 µl Triton X-100.
  5. Antibody Dilution Buffer: (1X PBS / 1% BSA / 0.3% Triton X-100): To prepare 10 ml, add 30 µl Triton X-100 to 10 ml 1X PBS. Mix well then add 0.1 g BSA (#9998), mix.
  6. Recommended Fluorochrome-conjugated Anti-mouse secondary antibodies:
  7. NOTE: When using any primary or fluorochrome-conjugated secondary antibody for the first time, titrate the antibody to determine which dilution allows for the strongest specific signal with the least background for your sample.
  8. Prolong® Gold AntiFade Reagent (#9071), Prolong® Gold AntiFade Reagent with DAPI (#8961).

B. Specimen Preparation and Antigen Retrieval

NOTE: Application of traditional antigen retrieval procedures to fixed-frozen tissues may result in excessive liberation of sections from the slide. It is highly recommended that users pre-treat glass slides with a reagent that promotes tissue adherence.(e.g., HistoGrip) while reducing retrieval temperature to 70°C.

  1. For tissue stored at -80°C: remove from freezer and equilibrate at -20°C for approximately 15 minutes before attempting to section. This may prevent cracking of the block when sectioning.
  2. Section tissue at a range of 6-20 µm and place on positively charged slides.
  3. Bake on a slide warmer at 60°C for 1 hour (this helps sections adhere to slides).
  4. Submerse slides in 1X citrate unmasking solution, heat in a microwave, and maintain a temperature of ~70°C for 20 minutes.
  5. Cool slides on bench top for 30 min.
  6. Rinse sections briefly in 1X PBS.

Immunostaining

NOTE: All subsequent incubations should be carried out at room temperature unless otherwise noted in a humid light-tight box or covered dish/plate to prevent drying and fluorochrome fading.

  1. Block specimen in Blocking Buffer for 60 min.
  2. While blocking, prepare primary antibody by diluting as indicated on protocol on product webpage in Antibody Dilution Buffer.
  3. Aspirate blocking solution, apply diluted primary antibody.
  4. Incubate overnight at 4°C.
  5. Rinse three times in 1X PBS for 5 min each.
  6. Incubate specimen in fluorochrome-conjugated secondary antibody diluted in Antibody Dilution Buffer for 1-2 hr at room temperature in the dark.
  7. Rinse three times in 1X PBS for 5 min each.
  8. Coverslip slides with Prolong® Gold Antifade Reagent (#9071) or Prolong® Gold Antifade Reagent with DAPI (#8961).
  9. For best results, allow mountant to cure overnight at room temperature. For long-term storage, store slides flat at 4°C protected from light.

posted October 2017

Protocol Id: 1569

Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

A. Solutions and Reagents

Achieve higher quality immunofluorescent images using the efficient and cost-effective, pre-made reagents in our #12727 Immunofluorescence Application Solutions Kit

NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalent grade water.

  1. 20X Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS): (9808) To prepare 1L 1X PBS: add 50 ml 20X PBS to 950 ml dH2O, mix. Adjust pH to 8.0.
  2. Formaldehyde: 16%, methanol free, Polysciences, Inc. (cat# 18814), use fresh and store opened vials at 4°C in dark, dilute in 1X PBS for use.
  3. Blocking Buffer (1X PBS / 5% normal serum / 0.3% Triton™ X-100): To prepare 10 ml, add 0.5 ml normal serum from the same species as the secondary antibody (e.g., Normal Goat Serum (#5425)) and 0.5 mL 20X PBS to 9.0 mL dH2O, mix well. While stirring, add 30 µl Triton™ X-100.
  4. Antibody Dilution Buffer (1X PBS / 1% BSA / 0.3% Triton X-100): To prepare 10 ml, add 30 µl Triton™ X-100 to 10 ml 1X PBS. Mix well then add 0.1 g BSA (9998), mix.
  5. Recommended Fluorochrome-conjugated Anti-Rabbit secondary antibodies:

  6. Prolong® Gold AntiFade Reagent (#9071), Prolong® Gold AntiFade Reagent with DAPI (#8961).

B. Specimen Preparation - Cultured Cell Lines (IF-IC)

NOTE: Cells should be grown, treated, fixed and stained directly in multi-well plates, chamber slides or on coverslips.

  1. Aspirate liquid, then cover cells to a depth of 2–3 mm with 4% formaldehyde diluted in 1X PBS.

    NOTE: Formaldehyde is toxic, use only in a fume hood.

  2. Allow cells to fix for 15 min at room temperature.
  3. Aspirate fixative, rinse three times in 1X PBS for 5 min each.
  4. Proceed with Immunostaining (Section C).

C. Immunostaining

NOTE: All subsequent incubations should be carried out at room temperature unless otherwise noted in a humid light-tight box or covered dish/plate to prevent drying and fluorochrome fading.

  1. Block specimen in Blocking Buffer for 60 min.
  2. While blocking, prepare primary antibody by diluting as indicated on product webpage in Antibody Dilution Buffer.
  3. Aspirate blocking solution, apply diluted primary antibody.
  4. Incubate overnight at 4°C.
  5. Rinse three times in 1X PBS for 5 min each.
  6. Incubate specimen in fluorochrome-conjugated secondary antibody diluted in Antibody Dilution Buffer for 1–2 hr at room temperature in the dark.
  7. Rinse three times in 1X PBS for 5 min each.
  8. Coverslip slides with Prolong® Gold Antifade Reagent (#9071) or Prolong® Gold Antifade Reagent with DAPI (#8961).
  9. For best results, allow mountant to cure overnight at room temperature. For long-term storage, store slides flat at 4°C protected from light.

posted November 2006

revised November 2013

Protocol Id: 24

Flow Cytometry, Methanol Permeabilization Protocol for Rabbit Antibodies

A. Solutions and Reagents

All reagents required for this protocol may be efficiently purchased together in our Intracellular Flow Cytometry Kit (Methanol) #13593, or individually using the catalog numbers listed below.

NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalent grade water.

  1. 1X Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS): To prepare 1 L 1X PBS: add 100 ml 10X PBS (#12528) to 900 ml water mix.
  2. 4% Formaldehyde, Methanol-Free (#47746)
  3. 100% Methanol (#13604): Chill before use
  4. Antibody Dilution Buffer: Purchase ready-to-use Flow Cytometry Antibody Dilution Buffer (#13616), or prepare a 0.5% BSA PBS buffer by dissolving 0.5 g Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) (#9998) in 100 ml 1X PBS. Store at 4°C.
  5. Recommended Anti-Rabbit secondary antibodies::
    • Anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L), F(ab')2 Fragment (Alexa Fluor® 488 Conjugate) #4412
    • Anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L), F(ab')2 Fragment (Alexa Fluor® 594 Conjugate) #8889
    • Anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L), F(ab')2 Fragment (Alexa Fluor® 647 Conjugate) #4414
    • Anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L), F(ab')2 Fragment (PE Conjugate) #79408

NOTE: When including fluorescent cellular dyes in your experiment (including viability dyes, DNA dyes, etc.), please refer to the dye product page for the recommended protocol. Visit www.cellsignal.com for a full listing of cellular dyes validated for use in flow cytometry.

B. Fixation

NOTE: Adherent cells or tissue should be dissociated and in single-cell suspension prior to fixation.

NOTE: Optimal centrifugation conditions will vary depending upon cell type and reagent volume. Generally, 150-300g for 1-5 minutes will be sufficient to pellet the cells.

NOTE: If using whole blood, lyse red blood cells and wash by centrifugation prior to fixation.

NOTE: Antibodies targeting CD markers or other extracellular proteins may be added prior to fixation if the epitope is disrupted by formaldehyde and/or methanol. The antibodies will remain bound to the target of interest during the fixation and permeabilization process. However, note that some fluorophores (including PE and APC) are damaged by methanol and thus should not be added prior to permeabilization. Conduct a small-scale experiment if you are unsure.

  1. Pellet cells by centrifugation and remove supernatant.
  2. Resuspend cells in approximately 100 µl 4% formaldehyde per 1 million cells. Mix well to dissociate pellet and prevent cross-linking of individual cells.
  3. Fix for 15 min at room temperature (20-25°C).
  4. Wash by centrifugation with excess 1X PBS. Discard supernatant in appropriate waste container. Resuspend cells in 0.5-1 ml 1X PBS. Proceed to Permeabilization step.
    1. Alternatively, cells may be stored overnight at 4°C in 1X PBS.

C. Permeabilization

  1. Permeabilize cells by adding ice-cold 100% methanol slowly to pre-chilled cells, while gently vortexing, to a final concentration of 90% methanol.
  2. Permeabilize for a minimum of 10 min on ice.
  3. Proceed with immunostaining (Section D) or store cells at -20°C in 90% methanol.

D. Immunostaining

NOTE: Count cells using a hemocytometer or alternative method.

  1. Aliquot desired number of cells into tubes or wells. (Generally, 5x105 to 1x106 cells per assay.)
  2. Wash cells by centrifugation in excess 1X PBS to remove methanol. Discard supernatant in appropriate waste container. Repeat if necessary.
  3. Resuspend cells in 100 µl of diluted primary antibody, prepared in Antibody Dilution Buffer at a recommended dilution or as determined via titration.
  4. Incubate for 1 hr at room temperature.
  5. Wash by centrifugation in Antibody Dilution Buffer or 1X PBS. Discard supernatant. Repeat.
  6. Resuspend cells in 100 µl of diluted fluorochrome-conjugated secondary antibody (prepared in Antibody Dilution Buffer at the recommended dilution).
  7. Incubate for 30 min at room temperature. Protect from light.
  8. Wash by centrifugation in Antibody Dilution Buffer or 1X PBS. Discard supernatant. Repeat.
  9. Resuspend cells in 200-500 µl of 1X PBS and analyze on flow cytometer.

posted July 2009

revised June 2020

Protocol Id: 404

Specificity / Sensitivity

GPNMB (E7U1Z) Rabbit mAb recognizes endogenous levels of total mouse GPNMB protein. This antibody does not cross-react with human GPNMB protein.

Species Reactivity:

Mouse

Source / Purification

Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues near the amino terminus of mouse GPNMB protein.

Background

Glycoprotein non-metastatic gene B (GPNMB) is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein overexpressed in many types of cancer. The GPNMB glycoprotein is involved in many physiological processes, including mediating transport of late melanosomes to keratinocytes (1), regulating osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation and function (2), stimulating dendritic cell maturation, promoting adhesion of dendritic cells to endothelial cells (3), enhancing autophagosome fusion to lysosomes in tissue repair, and regulating degradation of cellular debris (4,5).

While typical GPNMB expression is seen in tissues including skin, heart, kidney, lung, liver, and skeletal muscle (3,6), research studies show elevated GPNMB expression often contributes to the metastatic phenotype in numerous cancers (reviewed in 7). GPNMB is typically localized to intracellular compartments in normal cells (1,8), but investigators found it primarily on the cell surface of tumor cells (9,10). Differential localization and expression, and the role of GPNMB as a tumor promoter in many cancer types make this protein a viable therapeutic target (11).

The GPNMB ectodomain can be cleaved by matrix metalloproteinases and shed from the cell surface (12). Research studies identify the sheddase ADAM10 as one peptidase responsible for cleavage of the GPNMB ectodomain at the surface of breast cancer cells. Shedded GPNMB ectodomains may promote angiogenesis by inducing endothelial cell migration (13).

  1. Tomihari, M. et al. (2009) Exp Dermatol 18, 586-95.
  2. Sheng, M.H. et al. (2012) PLoS One 7, e35280.
  3. Shikano, S. et al. (2001) J Biol Chem 276, 8125-34.
  4. Li, B. et al. (2010) FASEB J 24, 4767-81.
  5. Patel-Chamberlin, M. et al. (2011) Kidney Int 79, 1138-48.
  6. Bandari, P.S. et al. (2003) Regul Pept 111, 169-78.
  7. Maric, G. et al. (2013) Onco Targets Ther 6, 839-52.
  8. Ripoll, V.M. et al. (2007) J Immunol 178, 6557-66.
  9. Tse, K.F. et al. (2006) Clin Cancer Res 12, 1373-82.
  10. Rose, A.A. et al. (2010) Clin Cancer Res 16, 2147-56.
  11. Keir, C.H. and Vahdat, L.T. (2012) Expert Opin Biol Ther 12, 259-63.
  12. Furochi, H. et al. (2007) FEBS Lett 581, 5743-50.
  13. Rose, A.A. et al. (2010) PLoS One 5, e12093.

Pathways & Proteins

Explore pathways + proteins related to this product.

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