Western blot analysis of extracts from HeLa cells, untreated or forskolin-treated (30 μM), using Phospho-PAR-4 (Thr163) Antibody (upper) or total PAR-4 Antibody #2328 (lower).Learn more about how we get our images.
Western blot analysis of extracts from HeLa cells, untreated or treated with Calyculin A (100 nM, 5 minutes), using Phospho-PAR-4 (Thr163) Antibody (upper) or total PAR-4 Antibody #2328 (lower).Learn more about how we get our images.
For western blots, incubate membrane with diluted primary antibody in 5% w/v BSA, 1X TBS, 0.1% Tween® 20 at 4°C with gentle shaking, overnight.
NOTE: Please refer to primary antibody datasheet or product webpage for recommended antibody dilution.
From sample preparation to detection, the reagents you need for your Western Blot are now in one convenient kit: #12957 Western Blotting Application Solutions Kit
NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalent grade water.
Load 20 µl onto SDS-PAGE gel (10 cm x 10 cm).
NOTE: Volumes are for 10 cm x 10 cm (100 cm2) of membrane; for different sized membranes, adjust volumes accordingly.
* Avoid repeated exposure to skin.
posted June 2005
revised November 2013
Reprobing of an existing membrane is a convenient means to immunoblot for multiple proteins independently when only a limited amount of sample is available. It should be noted that for the best possible results a fresh blot is always recommended. Reprobing can be a valuable method but with each reprobing of a blot there is potential for increased background signal. Additionally, it is recommended that you verify the removal of the first antibody complex prior to reprobing so that signal attributed to binding of the new antibody is not leftover signal from the first immunoblotting experiment. This can be done by re-exposing the blot to ECL reagents and making sure there is no signal prior to adding the next primary antibody.
NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalently purified water.
posted June 2005
revised October 2016
Protocol Id: 10
Supplied in 10 mM sodium HEPES (pH 7.5), 150 mM NaCl, 100 µg/ml BSA and 50% glycerol. Store at –20°C. Do not aliquot the antibody.
Phospho-PAR-4 (Thr163) Antibody detects endogenous levels of PAR-4 when phosphorylated at Thr163 (Thr163 corresponds to human sequence and is equivalent to Thr155 in rat and Thr156 in mouse).
Mouse, Rat, Monkey
Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Thr163 of human PAR-4 (Thr155 in rat and Thr156 in mouse). Antibodies were purified by protein A and peptide affinity chromatography.
PAR-4 (prostate apoptosis response-4) was identified as a protein that is upregulated in prostate tumor cells undergoing apoptosis (1). Additionally, in parallel studies PAR-4 was found in the yeast two-hybrid system to bind to the Wilms' tumor suppressor protein WT1 and may modulate WT1-medated transcriptional activation (2). PAR-4 contains a leucine zipper domain and a death domain and has been implicated as an effector of apoptosis during tumorigenesis as well as in neurodegenerative disorders (3,4). PAR-4 is widely expressed in normal tissues but can be downregulated in some tumor types. The mechanism of PAR-4 mediated apoptosis regulation appears to be complex and dependent on the cellular context. Studies have indicated roles for PAR-4 in activation of the Fas-FADD-caspase-8 pathway as well as inhibition of the NF-κB pro-survival pathway (5-7). Its activity is likely to depend on the cellular context and post-translational modifications. For instance, phosphorylation of PAR-4 by Akt prevents its nuclear translocation thereby promoting cell surivival (8). In contrast, phoshorylation of rat PAR-4 at T155 by PKA appears to positively regulate its apoptotic activity (9).
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