Western blot analysis of extracts from various cell lines using PREX1 (D8O8D) Rabbit mAb (upper) or GAPDH (D16H11) XP® Rabbit mAb #5174 (lower). Differential expression of PREX1 in breast cancer cells is consistent with that described by Sosa, M.S. et al. (2010).
Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of MCF7 cells, treated with heregulin (10 ng/ml, 5 min; left) or heregulin (10 ng/ml, 5 min) and Wortmannin #9951 (1 μM, 1 hr; center), and MDA-MB-231 cells treated with heregulin (10 ng/ml, 5 min; right), using PREX1 (D8O8D) Rabbit mAb (green). Blue pseudocolor = DRAQ5® #4084 (fluorescent DNA dye).
|MW (kDa)||190, 110|
Supplied in 10 mM sodium HEPES (pH 7.5), 150 mM NaCl, 100 µg/ml BSA, 50% glycerol and less than 0.02% sodium azide. Store at –20°C. Do not aliquot the antibody.
For western blots, incubate membrane with diluted primary antibody in 5% w/v BSA, 1X TBS, 0.1% Tween® 20 at 4°C with gentle shaking, overnight.
NOTE: Please refer to primary antibody product webpage for recommended antibody dilution.
From sample preparation to detection, the reagents you need for your Western Blot are now in one convenient kit: #12957 Western Blotting Application Solutions Kit
NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalent grade water.
Load 20 µl onto SDS-PAGE gel (10 cm x 10 cm).
NOTE: Volumes are for 10 cm x 10 cm (100 cm2) of membrane; for different sized membranes, adjust volumes accordingly.
* Avoid repeated exposure to skin.
posted June 2005
revised June 2020
Protocol Id: 10
NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalently purified water.
Recommended Fluorochrome-conjugated Anti-Rabbit secondary antibodies:
NOTE: Cells should be grown, treated, fixed and stained directly in multiwell plates, chamber slides or on coverslips.
NOTE: All subsequent incubations should be carried out at room temperature unless otherwise noted in a humid light-tight box or covered dish/plate to prevent drying and fluorochrome fading.
posted November 2006
revised December 2010
Protocol Id: 32
PREX1 (D8O8D) Rabbit mAb recognizes endogenous levels of total PREX1 protein. This antibody will recognize both isoform 1 (190 kDa) and isoform 2 (110 kDa) human PREX1, but has not been observed to cross-react with human PREX2 protein.
Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding His770 of human PREX1 protein.
Phosphoinositide-3,4,5-triphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3)-dependent Rac exchanger 1 (PREX1) is a Rac-specific GTP-exchange factor (GEF) regulated by heterotrimeric G-protein β/γ subunits and the lipid second messenger PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 (1-4). PREX1 contains two DEP (Dishevelled, Egl-10, and Pleckstrin homology) domains that coordinate heterotrimeric G-protein signaling. It also contains a Dbl-homology domain, which exhibits Rac-GEF activity, and PH and PDZ domains for interacting with upstream and downstream signaling components (1). Originally shown to modulate cellular migration of neutrophils by Rac2 activation (5-8), it is clear that PREX1 plays a broader role in modulating cell migration. PREX1 promotes metastasis of prostate cancer and melanoma cells, affects endothelial junction integrity, and is required for platelet generation and function (9-14). Research studies suggest that PREX1 plays an essential role in mediating ErbB-dependent signaling events in breast cancer by coordinating Rac activation in response to paracrine signals within the tumor microenvironment. Activation of PREX1 downstream of ErbB3 and EGFR chemokine receptors (CXCR4) promotes Rac activation, increased migration, proliferation, tumorigenesis, and metastasis in breast cancer cells (15,16). Consistent with this observation, deletion of PREX1 expression in mice results in resistance to melanoma metastasis (11). Expression of PREX1 in human tumors transplanted into mice inversely correlates with increased tumor progression and poor survival (15). Additional research studies suggest that PREX Rac-GEF activity is enhanced by phosphorylation in response to growth factors or hormones, and may require coincident dephosphorylation of two PH domain serine residues. The upstream kinases and precise regulatory mechanism remains elusive (15,17).
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