Western blot analysis of recombinant, purified S100 family proteins (50 ng) using S100A1 Antibody (upper) or Myc-Tag (71D10) Rabbit mAb #2278 (lower).
Western blot analysis of extracts from various cell lines using S100A1 Antibody.
Supplied in 10 mM sodium HEPES (pH 7.5), 150 mM NaCl, 100 µg/ml BSA and 50% glycerol. Store at –20°C. Do not aliquot the antibody.
For western blots, incubate membrane with diluted primary antibody in 5% w/v BSA, 1X TBS, 0.1% Tween® 20 at 4°C with gentle shaking, overnight.
NOTE: Please refer to primary antibody datasheet or product webpage for recommended antibody dilution.
From sample preparation to detection, the reagents you need for your Western Blot are now in one convenient kit: #12957 Western Blotting Application Solutions Kit
NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalent grade water.
Load 20 µl onto SDS-PAGE gel (10 cm x 10 cm).
NOTE: Volumes are for 10 cm x 10 cm (100 cm2) of membrane; for different sized membranes, adjust volumes accordingly.
* Avoid repeated exposure to skin.
posted June 2005
revised November 2013
Reprobing of an existing membrane is a convenient means to immunoblot for multiple proteins independently when only a limited amount of sample is available. It should be noted that for the best possible results a fresh blot is always recommended. Reprobing can be a valuable method but with each reprobing of a blot there is potential for increased background signal. Additionally, it is recommended that you verify the removal of the first antibody complex prior to reprobing so that signal attributed to binding of the new antibody is not leftover signal from the first immunoblotting experiment. This can be done by re-exposing the blot to ECL reagents and making sure there is no signal prior to adding the next primary antibody.
NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalently purified water.
posted June 2005
revised October 2016
Protocol Id: 10
S100A1 Antibody recognizes endogenous levels of total S100A1 protein. This antibody does not cross-react with other members of the S100 family.Species Reactivity:
Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Gln49 of human S100A1 protein. Antibodies are purified by protein A and peptide affinity chromatography.
Despite their relatively small size (8-12 kDa) and uncomplicated architecture, S100 proteins regulate a variety of cellular processes such as cell growth and motility, cell cycle progression, transcription, and differentiation. To date, 25 members have been identified, including S100A1-S100A18, trichohyalin, filaggrin, repetin, S100P, and S100Z, making it the largest group in the EF-hand, calcium-binding protein family. Interestingly, 14 S100 genes are clustered on human chromosome 1q21, a region of genomic instability. Research studies have demonstrated that significant correlation exists between aberrant S100 protein expression and cancer progression. S100 proteins primarily mediate immune responses in various tissue types but are also involved in neuronal development (1-4).
Each S100 monomer bears two EF-hand motifs and can bind up to two molecules of calcium (or other divalent cation in some instances). Structural evidence shows that S100 proteins form antiparallel homo- or heterodimers that coordinate binding partner proximity in a calcium-dependent (and sometimes calcium-independent) manner. Although structurally and functionally similar, individual members show restricted tissue distribution, are localized in specific cellular compartments, and display unique protein binding partners, which suggests that each plays a specific role in various signaling pathways. In addition to an intracellular role, some S100 proteins have been shown to act as receptors for extracellular ligands or are secreted and exhibit cytokine-like activities (1-4).
S100A1 is abundantly expressed in cardiac and skeletal muscle where it plays a major role in regulating calcium-dependent contractility (5,6). S100A1 and calmodulin bind and differentially regulate ryanodine receptors (RyRs), thereby modulating skeletal and cardiac muscle function (7). In addition to RyRs (RyR1 and RyR2), S100A1 has also been shown to interact with other components of the calcium-dependent cardiac signaling cascade including SERCA2a and phospholamban (8). Studies in animal models strongly suggest that S100A1 plays a significant role in the development of heart failure (1). In non-cardiac tissues, S100A1 has been shown to regulate cytoskeletal signaling, neurotransmitter release, enzymatic activity, transcription factors, and other calcium-binding proteins via direct interaction or via regulation of scaffolding and signaling components in each pathway (4).
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