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PhosphoSitePlus® Resource

  • Additional protein information
  • Analytical tools


H Mk Endogenous 110 Rabbit IgG

Western Blotting

Western blot analysis of extracts from 293T cells, mock transfected (-) or transfected with constructs expressing Myc/DDK-tagged full-length human UBE1 protein (hUBE1-Myc/DDK; +), Myc/DDK-tagged full-length human UBE1L2 protein (hUBE1L2-Myc/DDK; +) and Myc/DDK-tagged full-length human UBE1L protein (hUBE1L-Myc/DDK; +), using UBE1L/UBA7 (D6U4S) Rabbit mAb (upper) and DYKDDDDK Tag Antibody #2368 (lower).

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Western Blotting

Western blot analaysis of extracts from various cell lines using UBE1L/UBA7 (D6U4S) Rabbit mAb.

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Western Blotting Protocol

For western blots, incubate membrane with diluted primary antibody in 5% w/v BSA, 1X TBS, 0.1% Tween® 20 at 4°C with gentle shaking, overnight.

NOTE: Please refer to primary antibody datasheet or product webpage for recommended antibody dilution.

A. Solutions and Reagents

From sample preparation to detection, the reagents you need for your Western Blot are now in one convenient kit: #12957 Western Blotting Application Solutions Kit

NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalent grade water.

  1. 20X Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS): (#9808) To prepare 1 L 1X PBS: add 50 ml 20X PBS to 950 ml dH2O, mix.
  2. 10X Tris Buffered Saline (TBS): (#12498) To prepare 1 L 1X TBS: add 100 ml 10X to 900 ml dH2O, mix.
  3. 1X SDS Sample Buffer: Blue Loading Pack (#7722) or Red Loading Pack (#7723) Prepare fresh 3X reducing loading buffer by adding 1/10 volume 30X DTT to 1 volume of 3X SDS loading buffer. Dilute to 1X with dH2O.
  4. 10X Tris-Glycine SDS Running Buffer: (#4050) To prepare 1 L 1X running buffer: add 100 ml 10X running buffer to 900 ml dH2O, mix.
  5. 10X Tris-Glycine Transfer Buffer: (#12539) To prepare 1 L 1X Transfer Buffer: add 100 ml 10X Transfer Buffer to 200 ml methanol + 700 ml dH2O, mix.
  6. 10X Tris Buffered Saline with Tween® 20 (TBST): (#9997) To prepare 1 L 1X TBST: add 100 ml 10X TBST to 900 ml dH2O, mix.
  7. Nonfat Dry Milk: (#9999).
  8. Blocking Buffer: 1X TBST with 5% w/v nonfat dry milk; for 150 ml, add 7.5 g nonfat dry milk to 150 ml 1X TBST and mix well.
  9. Wash Buffer: (#9997) 1X TBST.
  10. Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA): (#9998).
  11. Primary Antibody Dilution Buffer: 1X TBST with 5% BSA; for 20 ml, add 1.0 g BSA to 20 ml 1X TBST and mix well.
  12. Biotinylated Protein Ladder Detection Pack: (#7727).
  13. Prestained Protein Marker, Broad Range (11-190 kDa): (#13953).
  14. Blotting Membrane and Paper: (#12369) This protocol has been optimized for nitrocellulose membranes. Pore size 0.2 µm is generally recommended.
  15. Secondary Antibody Conjugated to HRP: Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked Antibody (#7074).
  16. Detection Reagent: SignalFire™ ECL Reagent (#6883).

B. Protein Blotting

A general protocol for sample preparation.

  1. Treat cells by adding fresh media containing regulator for desired time.
  2. Aspirate media from cultures; wash cells with 1X PBS; aspirate.
  3. Lyse cells by adding 1X SDS sample buffer (100 µl per well of 6-well plate or 500 µl for a 10 cm diameter plate). Immediately scrape the cells off the plate and transfer the extract to a microcentrifuge tube. Keep on ice.
  4. Sonicate for 10–15 sec to complete cell lysis and shear DNA (to reduce sample viscosity).
  5. Heat a 20 µl sample to 95–100°C for 5 min; cool on ice.
  6. Microcentrifuge for 5 min.
  7. Load 20 µl onto SDS-PAGE gel (10 cm x 10 cm).

    NOTE: Loading of prestained molecular weight markers (#13953, 5 µl/lane) to verify electrotransfer and biotinylated protein ladder (#7727, 10 µl/lane) to determine molecular weights are recommended.

  8. Electrotransfer to nitrocellulose membrane (#12369).

C. Membrane Blocking and Antibody Incubations

NOTE: Volumes are for 10 cm x 10 cm (100 cm2) of membrane; for different sized membranes, adjust volumes accordingly.

I. Membrane Blocking

  1. (Optional) After transfer, wash nitrocellulose membrane with 25 ml TBS for 5 min at room temperature.
  2. Incubate membrane in 25 ml of blocking buffer for 1 hr at room temperature.
  3. Wash three times for 5 min each with 15 ml of TBST.

II. Primary Antibody Incubation

  1. Incubate membrane and primary antibody (at the appropriate dilution and diluent as recommended in the product datasheet) in 10 ml primary antibody dilution buffer with gentle agitation overnight at 4°C.
  2. Wash three times for 5 min each with 15 ml of TBST.
  3. Incubate membrane with Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked Antibody (#7074 at 1:2000) and anti-biotin, HRP-linked Antibody (#7075 at 1:1000–1:3000) to detect biotinylated protein markers in 10 ml of blocking buffer with gentle agitation for 1 hr at room temperature.
  4. Wash three times for 5 min each with 15 ml of TBST.
  5. Proceed with detection (Section D).

D. Detection of Proteins

Directions for Use:

  1. Wash membrane-bound HRP (antibody conjugate) three times for 5 minutes in TBST.
  2. Prepare 1X SignalFire™ ECL Reagent (#6883) by diluting one part 2X Reagent A and one part 2X Reagent B (e.g. for 10 ml, add 5 ml Reagent A and 5 ml Reagent B). Mix well.
  3. Incubate substrate with membrane for 1 minute, remove excess solution (membrane remains wet), wrap in plastic and expose to X-ray film.

* Avoid repeated exposure to skin.

posted June 2005

revised November 2013

Western Blot Reprobing Protocol

Reprobing of an existing membrane is a convenient means to immunoblot for multiple proteins independently when only a limited amount of sample is available. It should be noted that for the best possible results a fresh blot is always recommended. Reprobing can be a valuable method but with each reprobing of a blot there is potential for increased background signal. Additionally, it is recommended that you verify the removal of the first antibody complex prior to reprobing so that signal attributed to binding of the new antibody is not leftover signal from the first immunoblotting experiment. This can be done by re-exposing the blot to ECL reagents and making sure there is no signal prior to adding the next primary antibody.

A. Solutions and Reagents

NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalently purified water.

  1. Wash Buffer: Tris Buffered Saline with Tween® 20 (TBST-10X) (#9997)
  2. Stripping Buffer: To prepare 100 ml, mix 6.25 ml of 1M Tris-HCl pH 6.8, 10 ml of 20% SDS and 700 μl β-mercaptoethanol. Bring to 100 ml with deionized H20. Make buffer fresh just prior to use.

B. Protocol

  1. After film exposure, wash membrane four times for 5 min each in TBST. Best results are obtained if the membrane is not allowed to dry.
  2. Incubate membrane for 30 min at 50°C in stripping buffer (with slight agitation).
  3. Wash membrane six times for 5 min each in TBST.
  4. (Optional) To assure that the original signal is removed, wash membrane twice for 5 min each with 10 ml of TBST. Incubate membrane with LumiGLO® with gentle agitation for 1 min at room temperature. Drain membrane of excess developing solution. Do not let dry. Wrap in plastic wrap and expose to x-ray film.
  5. Wash membrane again four times for 5 min each in TBST.
  6. The membrane is now ready to reuse. Start detection at the "Membrane Blocking and Antibody Incubations" step in the Western Immunoblotting Protocol.

posted June 2005

revised October 2016

Protocol Id: 10

Product Usage Information

Application Dilutions
Western Blotting 1:1000

Storage: Supplied in 10 mM sodium HEPES (pH 7.5), 150 mM NaCl, 100 µg/ml BSA, 50% glycerol and less than 0.02% sodium azide. Store at –20°C. Do not aliquot the antibody.

Specificity / Sensitivity

UBE1L/UBA7 (D6U4S) Rabbit mAb recognizes endogenous levels of total UBE1L/UBA7 protein. This antibody does not cross-react with either UBE1/UBA1 or UBE1L2/UBA6 proteins.

Species Reactivity: Human, Monkey

Source / Purification

Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues near the carboxy terminus of human UBE1L/UBA7 protein.

Interferon-stimulated 15 kDa protein (ISG15), also known as ubiquitin cross-reactive protein (UCRP), is a member of the ubiquitin-like protein family and functions in various biological pathways from pregnancy to innate immune responses (1). Expression of ISG15 is stimulated by cellular exposure to type 1 interferons α and β, in addition to infection with viruses such as influenza B (2,3). After exposure to type I interferons, both lymphocytes and monocytes, in addition to some fibroblasts and epithelial cells, release ISG15 into culture medium (1,4). ISG15 has been shown to function as a cytokine, stimulating interferon γ secretion by monocytes and macrophages, proliferation of natural killer cells, and chemotactic responses in neutrophils (4,5). ISG15 has also been shown to function intracellularly, being covalently conjugated to other proteins by E1 (Ube1L), E2 (UbcH8) and E3 ligases via a multi-step process analogous to ubiquitination (6,7). ISG15 is removed from proteins by the ubiquitin processing protease Ubp43 (8). ISG15-protein conjugation (ISGylation) is induced by type 1 interferons, and target proteins include the serine protease inhibitor Serpin 2A, PLCγ1, ERK1/2, Jak1 and Stat1 (9,10). Unlike ubiquitination, ISGylation does not target proteins for degradation, rather ISGylation increases Jak1 and Stat1 activity, enhancing the cellular response to interferons (11).

Ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1-like protein/Ubiquitin-activating enzyme 7 (UBE1L/UBA7) is the activating enzyme for ISG15. Research studies have suggested that loss of UBE1L/UBA7 expression contributes to the development of lung cancer due to compromised inhibition of cyclin D1 expression (12-15). UBE1L/UBA7 has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute promyelocytic leukemia through a mechanism in which UBE1L/UBA7 drives ISG15ylation of the oncogenic PML-RARα fusion protein to promote its degradation (16,17).

1.  Ritchie, K.J. and Zhang, D.E. (2004) Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. 15, 237-246.

2.  Korant, B.D. et al. (1984) J. Biol. Chem. 259, 14835-14839.

3.  Haas, A.L. et al. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 11315-11323.

4.  Knight, E. and Cordova, B. (1991) J. Immunol. 146, 2280-2284.

5.  D'Cunha, J. et al. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 211-215.

6.  Loeb, K.R. and Haas, A.L. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 7806-7813.

7.  Zhao, C. et al. (2005) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 10200-10205.

8.  Malakhov, M.P. et al. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 9976-9981.

9.  Malakhov, M.P. et al. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 16608-16613.

10.  Hamerman, J.A. et al. (2002) J. Immunol. 168, 2415-2423.

11.  Malakhova, O.A. et al. (2003) Genes Dev. 17, 455-460.

12.  McLaughlin, P.M. et al. (2000) Int J Cancer 85, 871-6.

13.  Kok, K. et al. (1995) Gene Expr 4, 163-75.

14.  Pitha-Rowe, I. et al. (2004) Cancer Res 64, 8109-15.

15.  Feng, Q. et al. (2008) Mol Cancer Ther 7, 3780-8.

16.  Shah, S.J. et al. (2008) Mol Cancer Ther 7, 905-14.

17.  Kitareewan, S. et al. (2002) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99, 3806-11.

Entrez-Gene Id 7318
Swiss-Prot Acc. P41226

For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.
Cell Signaling Technology is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
Tween is a registered trademark of ICI Americas, Inc.

UBE1L/UBA7 (D6U4S) Rabbit mAb