Western blot analysis of extracts from various cell lines using ULK1 (D8H5) Rabbit mAb.
Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of MCF7 cells, untreated (left), untreated and post-processed with λ-phosphatase (center) or treated with Torin 1 #14379 (250 nM, 5 hr; right), using Phospho-ULK1 (Ser757) (D7O6U) Rabbit mAb. Blue = Hoechst 33342 #4082 (fluorescent DNA dye).
Western blot analysis of extracts from wild-type MEF and ULK1 (-/-) MEF cells using ULK1 (D8H5) Rabbit mAb (upper) and β-Actin (D6A8) Rabbit mAb #8457 (lower). MEF cells were kindly provided by Dr. Reuben Shaw (Salk Institute, La Jolla, CA).
Western blot analysis of extract from A172 cells, untreated (-) or treated with mTOR inhibitors, either Torin-1 (250 nM, 5 hrs), Torin-2 (250 nM, 5 hrs), or INK128 (250 nM, 5 hours) using Phospho-ULK1 (Ser757) (D7O6U) Rabbit mAb (upper) or ULK1 (D8H5) Rabbit mAb #8054 (lower).
Western blot analysis of extracts from various cell lines using Phospho-ULK1 (Ser757) (D7O6U) Rabbit mAb.
PhosphoPlus® Duets from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) provide a means to assess protein activation status. Each Duet contains an activation-state and total protein antibody to your target of interest. These antibodies have been selected from CST's product offering based upon superior performance in specified applications.
Two related serine/threonine kinases, UNC-51-like kinase 1 and 2 (ULK1, ULK2), were discovered as mammalian homologs of the C. elegans gene UNC-51 in which mutants exhibited abnormal axonal extension and growth (1-4). Both proteins are widely expressed and contain an amino-terminal kinase domain followed by a central proline/serine rich domain and a highly conserved carboxy-terminal domain. The roles of ULK1 and ULK2 in axon growth have been linked to studies showing that the kinases are localized to neuronal growth cones and are involved in endocytosis of critical growth factors, such as NGF (5). Yeast two-hybrid studies found ULK1/2 associated with modulators of the endocytic pathway, SynGAP and syntenin (6). Structural similarity of ULK1/2 has also been recognized with the yeast autophagy protein Atg1/Apg1 (7). Knockdown experiments using siRNA demonstrated that ULK1 is essential for autophagy (8), a catabolic process for the degradation of bulk cytoplasmic contents (9,10). It appears that Atg1/ULK1 can act as a convergence point for multiple signals that control autophagy (11), and can bind to several autophagy-related (Atg) proteins, regulating phosphorylation states and protein trafficking (12-16).
AMPK, activated during low nutrient conditions, directly phosphorylates ULK1 at multiple sites including Ser317, Ser555, and Ser777 (17,18). Conversely, mTOR, which is a regulator of cell growth and is an inhibitor of autophagy, phosphorylates ULK1 at Ser757 and disrupts the interaction between ULK1 and AMPK (17).
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