Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of the hypothalamic region of mouse brain using VIP (D8J1V) Rabbit mAb (IF Formulated) (green) and GFAP (GA5) Mouse mAb #3670 (red). Blue pseudocolor = DRAQ5® #4084 (fluorescent DNA dye).
Supplied in 10 mM sodium HEPES (pH 7.5), 150 mM NaCl, 100 µg/ml BSA, 50% glycerol and less than 0.02% sodium azide. Store at –20°C. Do not aliquot the antibody.
NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalent grade water.
Recommended Fluorochrome-conjugated Anti-Rabbit secondary antibodies:
NOTE: When using any primary or fluorochrome-conjugated secondary antibody for the first time, titrate the antibody to determine which dilution allows for the strongest specific signal with the least background for your sample.
Cover sections with 4% formaldehyde dilute in 1X PBS.
NOTE: Formaldehyde is toxic, use only in fume hood.
NOTE: All subsequent incubations should be carried out at room temperature unless otherwise noted in a humid light-tight box or covered dish/plate to prevent drying and fluorochrome fading.
posted November 2006
revised July 2016
Protocol Id: 151
VIP (D8J1V) Rabbit mAb (IF Formulated) recognizes endogenous levels of total VIP protein. It is specifically formulated for the detection of total VIP protein in fixed-frozen tissue sections using standard indirect fluorescent detection.
Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Asn133 of human VIP protein.
Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) is a neuropeptide synthesized as a precursor that is processed to an active mature peptide of 28 residues (1). VIP is produced by neurons, endocrine, and immune cells and is expressed in many tissues, in agreement with its various biological functions (2). VIP acts through activation of two receptors belonging to the G protein-coupled receptor family, VPAC1 and VPAC2 (2) and elicits several effects such as vasodilation, regulation of smooth muscle cell contractility, and blood flow in the gastrointestinal track (3,4). In addition, VIP is involved in the regulation of T cell differentiation (6), and in immunosuppression (7,8).
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