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Human Peroxisomal Membrane

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Peroxin-5 (PEX5) is the shuttle receptor that delivers proteins to peroxisomes (1). In the cytosol, PEX5 binds to the peroxisomal targeting signal 1 (PTS1), a short peptide sequence present at the extreme C termini of newly synthesized peroxisomal matrix proteins. The PEX5-cargo complex interacts with the peroxisomal docking/translocation machinery on the peroxisomal membrane, where the cargo is released into the organelle matrix. During this process, PEX5 is monoubiquitinated at a conserved cysteine residue, and the ubiquitin-PEX5 conjugate is released from the organelle into the cytosol, where PEX5 is deubiquitinated and ready the next round of targeting (2,3).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Catalase catalyzes the conversion of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen (1). Research studies show that overexpression of this antioxidant enzyme increases the ability of pancreatic β-cells to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby protecting pancreatic β-cells from oxidative stress (2). The pancreatic β-cells overexpressing this enzyme are also protected from hydrogen peroxide-mediated lipotoxicity, providing further evidence for the importance of catalase in the pathogenesis of diabetes (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Catalase catalyzes the conversion of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen (1). Research studies show that overexpression of this antioxidant enzyme increases the ability of pancreatic β-cells to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby protecting pancreatic β-cells from oxidative stress (2). The pancreatic β-cells overexpressing this enzyme are also protected from hydrogen peroxide-mediated lipotoxicity, providing further evidence for the importance of catalase in the pathogenesis of diabetes (3).

$303
100 µl
$717
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: MEK1 and MEK2, also called MAPK or Erk kinases, are dual-specificity protein kinases that function in a mitogen activated protein kinase cascade controlling cell growth and differentiation (1-3). Activation of MEK1 and MEK2 occurs through phosphorylation of two serine residues at positions 217 and 221, located in the activation loop of subdomain VIII, by Raf-like molecules. MEK1/2 is activated by a wide variety of growth factors and cytokines and also by membrane depolarization and calcium influx (1-4). Constitutively active forms of MEK1/2 are sufficient for the transformation of NIH/3T3 cells or the differentiation of PC-12 cells (4). MEK activates p44 and p42 MAP kinase by phosphorylating both threonine and tyrosine residues at sites located within the activation loop of kinase subdomain VIII.

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® MEK2 siRNA from Cell Signaling Technology allows the researcher to specifically inhibit MEK2 expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: MEK1 and MEK2, also called MAPK or Erk kinases, are dual-specificity protein kinases that function in a mitogen activated protein kinase cascade controlling cell growth and differentiation (1-3). Activation of MEK1 and MEK2 occurs through phosphorylation of two serine residues at positions 217 and 221, located in the activation loop of subdomain VIII, by Raf-like molecules. MEK1/2 is activated by a wide variety of growth factors and cytokines and also by membrane depolarization and calcium influx (1-4). Constitutively active forms of MEK1/2 are sufficient for the transformation of NIH/3T3 cells or the differentiation of PC-12 cells (4). MEK activates p44 and p42 MAP kinase by phosphorylating both threonine and tyrosine residues at sites located within the activation loop of kinase subdomain VIII.

$303
100 µl
$717
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat, S. cerevisiae

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: MEK1 and MEK2, also called MAPK or Erk kinases, are dual-specificity protein kinases that function in a mitogen activated protein kinase cascade controlling cell growth and differentiation (1-3). Activation of MEK1 and MEK2 occurs through phosphorylation of two serine residues at positions 217 and 221, located in the activation loop of subdomain VIII, by Raf-like molecules. MEK1/2 is activated by a wide variety of growth factors and cytokines and also by membrane depolarization and calcium influx (1-4). Constitutively active forms of MEK1/2 are sufficient for the transformation of NIH/3T3 cells or the differentiation of PC-12 cells (4). MEK activates p44 and p42 MAP kinase by phosphorylating both threonine and tyrosine residues at sites located within the activation loop of kinase subdomain VIII.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: MEK1 and MEK2, also called MAPK or Erk kinases, are dual-specificity protein kinases that function in a mitogen activated protein kinase cascade controlling cell growth and differentiation (1-3). Activation of MEK1 and MEK2 occurs through phosphorylation of two serine residues at positions 217 and 221, located in the activation loop of subdomain VIII, by Raf-like molecules. MEK1/2 is activated by a wide variety of growth factors and cytokines and also by membrane depolarization and calcium influx (1-4). Constitutively active forms of MEK1/2 are sufficient for the transformation of NIH/3T3 cells or the differentiation of PC-12 cells (4). MEK activates p44 and p42 MAP kinase by phosphorylating both threonine and tyrosine residues at sites located within the activation loop of kinase subdomain VIII.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: MEK1 and MEK2, also called MAPK or Erk kinases, are dual-specificity protein kinases that function in a mitogen activated protein kinase cascade controlling cell growth and differentiation (1-3). Activation of MEK1 and MEK2 occurs through phosphorylation of two serine residues at positions 217 and 221, located in the activation loop of subdomain VIII, by Raf-like molecules. MEK1/2 is activated by a wide variety of growth factors and cytokines and also by membrane depolarization and calcium influx (1-4). Constitutively active forms of MEK1/2 are sufficient for the transformation of NIH/3T3 cells or the differentiation of PC-12 cells (4). MEK activates p44 and p42 MAP kinase by phosphorylating both threonine and tyrosine residues at sites located within the activation loop of kinase subdomain VIII.

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: MEK1 and MEK2, also called MAPK or Erk kinases, are dual-specificity protein kinases that function in a mitogen activated protein kinase cascade controlling cell growth and differentiation (1-3). Activation of MEK1 and MEK2 occurs through phosphorylation of two serine residues at positions 217 and 221, located in the activation loop of subdomain VIII, by Raf-like molecules. MEK1/2 is activated by a wide variety of growth factors and cytokines and also by membrane depolarization and calcium influx (1-4). Constitutively active forms of MEK1/2 are sufficient for the transformation of NIH/3T3 cells or the differentiation of PC-12 cells (4). MEK activates p44 and p42 MAP kinase by phosphorylating both threonine and tyrosine residues at sites located within the activation loop of kinase subdomain VIII.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Mammalian long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL) catalyzes the ligation of the fatty acid to CoA to form fatty acyl-CoA in a two-step reaction (1). Five isoforms of ACSL have been identified (1). These isoforms have different substrate preferences and subcellular localizations (1). Overexpression of ACSL1 results in changes to fatty acid metabolism in rat primary hepatocytes (2).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Mammalian long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL) catalyzes the ligation of the fatty acid to CoA to form fatty acyl-CoA in a two-step reaction (1). Five isoforms of ACSL have been identified (1). These isoforms have different substrate preferences and subcellular localizations (1). Overexpression of ACSL1 results in changes to fatty acid metabolism in rat primary hepatocytes (2).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated MAVS (D5A9E) Rabbit mAb #24930.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS, VISA) contributes to innate immunity by triggering IRF-3 and NF-κB activation in response to viral infection, leading to the production of IFN-β (1). The MAVS protein contains an N-terminal CARD domain and a C-terminal mitochondrial transmembrane domain. The MAVS adaptor protein plays a critical and specific role in viral defenses (2). MAVS acts downstream of the RIG-I RNA helicase and viral RNA sensor, leading to the recruitment of IKKε, TRIF and TRAF6 (3,4). Some viruses have evolved strategies to circumvent these innate defenses by using proteases that cleave MAVS to prevent its mitochondrial localization (5,6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Hamster, Human, Mouse, Pig, Rat, Zebrafish

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Frozen), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The 21-24 kDa integral proteins, caveolins, are the principal structural components of the cholesterol/sphingolipid-enriched plasma membrane microdomain caveolae. Three members of the caveolin family (caveolin-1, -2, and -3) have been identified with different tissue distributions. Caveolins form hetero- and homo-oligomers that interact with cholesterol and other lipids (1). Caveolins are involved in diverse biological functions, including vesicular trafficking, cholesterol homeostasis, cell adhesion, and apoptosis, and are also implicated in neurodegenerative disease (2). Caveolins interact with multiple signaling molecules such as Gα subunit, tyrosine kinase receptors, PKCs, Src family tyrosine kinases, and eNOS (1,2). It is believed that caveolins serve as scaffolding proteins for the integration of signal transduction. Phosphorylation at Tyr14 is essential for caveolin association with SH2 or PTB domain-containing adaptor proteins such as GRB7 (3-5). Phosphorylation at Ser80 regulates caveolin binding to the ER membrane and entry into the secretory pathway (6).

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The 21-24 kDa integral proteins, caveolins, are the principal structural components of the cholesterol/sphingolipid-enriched plasma membrane microdomain caveolae. Three members of the caveolin family (caveolin-1, -2, and -3) have been identified with different tissue distributions. Caveolins form hetero- and homo-oligomers that interact with cholesterol and other lipids (1). Caveolins are involved in diverse biological functions, including vesicular trafficking, cholesterol homeostasis, cell adhesion, and apoptosis, and are also implicated in neurodegenerative disease (2). Caveolins interact with multiple signaling molecules such as Gα subunit, tyrosine kinase receptors, PKCs, Src family tyrosine kinases, and eNOS (1,2). It is believed that caveolins serve as scaffolding proteins for the integration of signal transduction. Phosphorylation at Tyr14 is essential for caveolin association with SH2 or PTB domain-containing adaptor proteins such as GRB7 (3-5). Phosphorylation at Ser80 regulates caveolin binding to the ER membrane and entry into the secretory pathway (6).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Dog, Hamster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The 21-24 kDa integral proteins, caveolins, are the principal structural components of the cholesterol/sphingolipid-enriched plasma membrane microdomain caveolae. Three members of the caveolin family (caveolin-1, -2, and -3) have been identified with different tissue distributions. Caveolins form hetero- and homo-oligomers that interact with cholesterol and other lipids (1). Caveolins are involved in diverse biological functions, including vesicular trafficking, cholesterol homeostasis, cell adhesion, and apoptosis, and are also implicated in neurodegenerative disease (2). Caveolins interact with multiple signaling molecules such as Gα subunit, tyrosine kinase receptors, PKCs, Src family tyrosine kinases, and eNOS (1,2). It is believed that caveolins serve as scaffolding proteins for the integration of signal transduction. Phosphorylation at Tyr14 is essential for caveolin association with SH2 or PTB domain-containing adaptor proteins such as GRB7 (3-5). Phosphorylation at Ser80 regulates caveolin binding to the ER membrane and entry into the secretory pathway (6).

$262
50-100 transfections
300 µl
SignalSilence® MEK2 siRNA from Cell Signaling Technology allows the researcher to specifically inhibit MEK2 expression using RNA interference, a method in which gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce protein expression in specified cell lines.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: MEK1 and MEK2, also called MAPK or Erk kinases, are dual-specificity protein kinases that function in a mitogen activated protein kinase cascade controlling cell growth and differentiation (1-3). Activation of MEK1 and MEK2 occurs through phosphorylation of two serine residues at positions 217 and 221, located in the activation loop of subdomain VIII, by Raf-like molecules. MEK1/2 is activated by a wide variety of growth factors and cytokines and also by membrane depolarization and calcium influx (1-4). Constitutively active forms of MEK1/2 are sufficient for the transformation of NIH/3T3 cells or the differentiation of PC-12 cells (4). MEK activates p44 and p42 MAP kinase by phosphorylating both threonine and tyrosine residues at sites located within the activation loop of kinase subdomain VIII.

$348
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology® antibody is conjugated to the carbohydrate groups of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) via its amine groups. The HRP conjugated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Caveolin-1 (D46G3) XP® Rabbit mAb #3267.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Dog, Hamster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The 21-24 kDa integral proteins, caveolins, are the principal structural components of the cholesterol/sphingolipid-enriched plasma membrane microdomain caveolae. Three members of the caveolin family (caveolin-1, -2, and -3) have been identified with different tissue distributions. Caveolins form hetero- and homo-oligomers that interact with cholesterol and other lipids (1). Caveolins are involved in diverse biological functions, including vesicular trafficking, cholesterol homeostasis, cell adhesion, and apoptosis, and are also implicated in neurodegenerative disease (2). Caveolins interact with multiple signaling molecules such as Gα subunit, tyrosine kinase receptors, PKCs, Src family tyrosine kinases, and eNOS (1,2). It is believed that caveolins serve as scaffolding proteins for the integration of signal transduction. Phosphorylation at Tyr14 is essential for caveolin association with SH2 or PTB domain-containing adaptor proteins such as GRB7 (3-5). Phosphorylation at Ser80 regulates caveolin binding to the ER membrane and entry into the secretory pathway (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The evolutionarily conserved CCR4-NOT (CNOT) complex regulates mRNA metabolism in eukaryotic cells (1). This regulation occurs at different levels of mRNA synthesis and degradation, including transcription initiation, elongation, deadenylation, and degradation (1). Multiple components, including CNOT1, CNOT2, CNOT3, CNOT4, CNOT6, CNOT6L, CNOT7, CNOT8, CNOT9, and CNOT10 have been identified in this complex (2). In addition, subunit composition of this complex has been shown to vary among different tissues (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The evolutionarily conserved CCR4-NOT (CNOT) complex regulates mRNA metabolism in eukaryotic cells (1). This regulation occurs at different levels of mRNA synthesis and degradation, including transcription initiation, elongation, deadenylation, and degradation (1). Multiple components, including CNOT1, CNOT2, CNOT3, CNOT4, CNOT6, CNOT6L, CNOT7, CNOT8, CNOT9, and CNOT10 have been identified in this complex (2). In addition, subunit composition of this complex has been shown to vary among different tissues (3).

$327
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology (CST) antibody is conjugated to biotin under optimal conditions. The unconjugated antibody Phospho-MEK1/2 (Ser217/221) (41G9) Rabbit mAb #9154 reacts with human, mouse, rat, monkey and D. melanogaster phospho-MEK1/2 (Ser217/221). CST expects that Phospho-MEK1/2 (Ser217/221) (41G9) Rabbit mAb (Biotinylated) will also recognize phospho-MEK1/2 (Ser217/221) in these species.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: MEK1 and MEK2, also called MAPK or Erk kinases, are dual-specificity protein kinases that function in a mitogen activated protein kinase cascade controlling cell growth and differentiation (1-3). Activation of MEK1 and MEK2 occurs through phosphorylation of two serine residues at positions 217 and 221, located in the activation loop of subdomain VIII, by Raf-like molecules. MEK1/2 is activated by a wide variety of growth factors and cytokines and also by membrane depolarization and calcium influx (1-4). Constitutively active forms of MEK1/2 are sufficient for the transformation of NIH/3T3 cells or the differentiation of PC-12 cells (4). MEK activates p44 and p42 MAP kinase by phosphorylating both threonine and tyrosine residues at sites located within the activation loop of kinase subdomain VIII.