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Monkey Positive Regulation of interleukin-6 Biosynthetic Process

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: TRAFs (TNF receptor-associated factors) are a family of multifunctional adaptor proteins that bind to surface receptors and recruit additional proteins to form multiprotein signaling complexes capable of promoting cellular responses (1-3). Members of the TRAF family share a common carboxy-terminal "TRAF domain", which mediates interactions with associated proteins; many also contain amino-terminal Zinc/RING finger motifs. The first TRAFs identified, TRAF1 and TRAF2, were found by virtue of their interactions with the cytoplasmic domain of TNF-receptor 2 (TNFRII) (4). The six known TRAFs (TRAF1-6) act as adaptor proteins for a wide range of cell surface receptors and participate in the regulation of cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, and stress responses.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, named for the closely related Toll receptor in Drosophila, play a pivotal role in innate immune responses (1-4). TLRs recognize conserved motifs found in various pathogens and mediate defense responses (5-7). Triggering of the TLR pathway leads to the activation of NF-κB and subsequent regulation of immune and inflammatory genes (4). The TLRs and members of the IL-1 receptor family share a conserved stretch of approximately 200 amino acids known as the Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain (1). Upon activation, TLRs associate with a number of cytoplasmic adaptor proteins containing TIR domains, including myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), MyD88-adaptor-like/TIR-associated protein (MAL/TIRAP), Toll-receptor-associated activator of interferon (TRIF), and Toll-receptor-associated molecule (TRAM) (8-10). This association leads to the recruitment and activation of IRAK1 and IRAK4, which form a complex with TRAF6 to activate TAK1 and IKK (8,11-14). Activation of IKK leads to the degradation of IκB, which normally maintains NF-κB in an inactive state by sequestering it in the cytoplasm.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Nod1/CARD4 is a cytosolic protein structually related to Apaf-1 and plant drug-resistance proteins that has been implicated in apoptosis and inflammatory responses to certain pathogenic bacteria (1-3). It contains an amino-terminal caspase recruitment domain (CARD) that is linked to a central nucleotide-binding domain (NBD; also known as a NOD domain) and is followed by carboxy-terminal leucine-rich repeats (LRR) (1). Like Apaf-1, Nod1 induces apoptosis by a CARD/NBD-dependent activation of caspase-9 (1). The primary function of Nod1 is thought to be as a sensor for certain pathogenic microbes and triggering inflammatory responses including the activation of NF-κB and JNK pathways (4-6). The LRR of Nod1 appears to be involved in recognition of microbial components and the CARD domain induces NF-κB activation in cooperation with the CARD containing kinase, RICK/RIP2/CARDIAK (1,5,6). Mutations in Nod1 have been linked increased susceptibility to asthma (7) and inflammatory bowel disease (8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: In response to cytokines, stress, and chemotactic factors, MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAPK-2) is rapidly phosphorylated and activated. It has been shown that MAPKAPK-2 is a direct target of p38 MAPK (1). Multiple residues of MAPKAPK-2 are phosphorylated in vivo in response to stress. However, only four residues (Thr25, Thr222, Ser272, and Thr334) are phosphorylated by p38 MAPK in an in vitro kinase assay (2). Phosphorylation at Thr222, Ser272, and Thr334 appears to be essential for the activity of MAPKAPK-2 (2). Thr25 is phosphorylated by p42 MAPK in vitro, but is not required for the activation of MAPKAPK-2 (2).

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: In response to cytokines, stress, and chemotactic factors, MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAPK-2) is rapidly phosphorylated and activated. It has been shown that MAPKAPK-2 is a direct target of p38 MAPK (1). Multiple residues of MAPKAPK-2 are phosphorylated in vivo in response to stress. However, only four residues (Thr25, Thr222, Ser272, and Thr334) are phosphorylated by p38 MAPK in an in vitro kinase assay (2). Phosphorylation at Thr222, Ser272, and Thr334 appears to be essential for the activity of MAPKAPK-2 (2). Thr25 is phosphorylated by p42 MAPK in vitro, but is not required for the activation of MAPKAPK-2 (2).

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: In response to cytokines, stress, and chemotactic factors, MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAPK-2) is rapidly phosphorylated and activated. It has been shown that MAPKAPK-2 is a direct target of p38 MAPK (1). Multiple residues of MAPKAPK-2 are phosphorylated in vivo in response to stress. However, only four residues (Thr25, Thr222, Ser272, and Thr334) are phosphorylated by p38 MAPK in an in vitro kinase assay (2). Phosphorylation at Thr222, Ser272, and Thr334 appears to be essential for the activity of MAPKAPK-2 (2). Thr25 is phosphorylated by p42 MAPK in vitro, but is not required for the activation of MAPKAPK-2 (2).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: In response to cytokines, stress, and chemotactic factors, MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAPK-2) is rapidly phosphorylated and activated. It has been shown that MAPKAPK-2 is a direct target of p38 MAPK (1). Multiple residues of MAPKAPK-2 are phosphorylated in vivo in response to stress. However, only four residues (Thr25, Thr222, Ser272, and Thr334) are phosphorylated by p38 MAPK in an in vitro kinase assay (2). Phosphorylation at Thr222, Ser272, and Thr334 appears to be essential for the activity of MAPKAPK-2 (2). Thr25 is phosphorylated by p42 MAPK in vitro, but is not required for the activation of MAPKAPK-2 (2).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: In response to cytokines, stress, and chemotactic factors, MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAPK-2) is rapidly phosphorylated and activated. It has been shown that MAPKAPK-2 is a direct target of p38 MAPK (1). Multiple residues of MAPKAPK-2 are phosphorylated in vivo in response to stress. However, only four residues (Thr25, Thr222, Ser272, and Thr334) are phosphorylated by p38 MAPK in an in vitro kinase assay (2). Phosphorylation at Thr222, Ser272, and Thr334 appears to be essential for the activity of MAPKAPK-2 (2). Thr25 is phosphorylated by p42 MAPK in vitro, but is not required for the activation of MAPKAPK-2 (2).