Application Methods: IHC-Leica® Bond™, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting
Background: CD163 is a transmembrane scavenger receptor expressed on the macrophage surface. It has 9 B-type SRCR extracellular domains mediating serum haptoglobin clearing/endocytosis, pathogen binding and signal transduction, and calcium binding (1, 2). CD163 is used as a surface marker of M2 type macrophages, including M2 type tumor associated macrophages (TAMs), which facilitate cancer progression by secreting cytokines to promote angiogenesis, immunosuppression and metastasis (3). Inflammatory stimulation and stress signal can induce extracellular domain shedding of CD163 to generate soluble CD163 (sCD163). The increased sCD163 level in serum is associated with low-grade inflammation in disease conditions (4-7).
Application Methods: IHC-Leica® Bond™, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting
Background: CD5 is a type-I transmembrane protein belonging to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) family, characterized by the presence of at least one SRCR domain of 90-110 amino acids. CD5 is expressed by all mature T cells, the B-1a subset of mature B cells, and some leukemic B cells. Its expression is increased in regulatory T and B cells (Tregs/Bregs). Anergic T and B cells also have elevated CD5 expression. Elevated levels of CD5 are also found in many autoimmune disorders (1-3). CD5 is associated with the T cell receptor (TCR) and negatively modulates T cell activation and differentiation. CD5 expression on the tumor infiltrating T lymphocytes is inversely correlated with their antitumor activity (4-6). Recently it was reported that CD5 directly binds to IL6 and can mediate downstream signaling. CD5+ B cells promote tumor growth in animal models (7). Reagents targeting CD5 have been actively pursued as therapeutic interventions for cancer and other conditions (8,9).