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Mouse Regulation of Steroid Metabolic Process

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Glucuronidation is a major pathway that enhances the elimination of lipophilic xenobiotics and endobiotics to more more water soluble compounds for excretion (1,2). The UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) superfamily catalyzes the glucuronidation of the glycosyl group of a nucleotide sugar to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. Over 100 UGT mammalian gene products have been described and have been divided into subfamilies based on sequence identities (3). The UGT1 subfamily consists of a number of gene products resulting from alternative splicing. These UGT products can differ in tissue expression and substrate specificity. Also, marked differences in the individual expression of UGT isoforms can account for differences in drug metabolism.

$327
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology (CST) antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry in human cells. CST expects that Phospho-Stat5 (Tyr694) (C71E5) Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 488) will display the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated antibody (Phospho-Stat5 (Tyr694) (C71E5) Rabbit mAb #9314).
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Stat5 is activated in response to a wide variety of ligands including IL-2, GM-CSF, growth hormone and prolactin. Phosphorylation at Tyr694 is obligatory for Stat5 activation (1,2). This phosphorylation is mediated by Src upon erythropoietin stimulation (3). Stat5 is constitutively active in some leukemic cell types (4). Phosphorylated Stat5 is found in some endothelial cells treated with IL-3, which suggests its involvement in angiogenesis and cell motility (5). Stat5a and Stat5b are independently regulated and activated in various cell types. For instance, interferon treatment predominantly activates Stat5a in U-937 cells and Stat5b in HeLa cells (6).

$134
20 µl
$336
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: Stat5 is activated in response to a wide variety of ligands including IL-2, GM-CSF, growth hormone and prolactin. Phosphorylation at Tyr694 is obligatory for Stat5 activation (1,2). This phosphorylation is mediated by Src upon erythropoietin stimulation (3). Stat5 is constitutively active in some leukemic cell types (4). Phosphorylated Stat5 is found in some endothelial cells treated with IL-3, which suggests its involvement in angiogenesis and cell motility (5). Stat5a and Stat5b are independently regulated and activated in various cell types. For instance, interferon treatment predominantly activates Stat5a in U-937 cells and Stat5b in HeLa cells (6).

$327
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Phospho-Stat5 (Tyr694) (C71E5) Rabbit mAb #9314.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Stat5 is activated in response to a wide variety of ligands including IL-2, GM-CSF, growth hormone and prolactin. Phosphorylation at Tyr694 is obligatory for Stat5 activation (1,2). This phosphorylation is mediated by Src upon erythropoietin stimulation (3). Stat5 is constitutively active in some leukemic cell types (4). Phosphorylated Stat5 is found in some endothelial cells treated with IL-3, which suggests its involvement in angiogenesis and cell motility (5). Stat5a and Stat5b are independently regulated and activated in various cell types. For instance, interferon treatment predominantly activates Stat5a in U-937 cells and Stat5b in HeLa cells (6).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Stat5 is activated in response to a wide variety of ligands including IL-2, GM-CSF, growth hormone and prolactin. Phosphorylation at Tyr694 is obligatory for Stat5 activation (1,2). This phosphorylation is mediated by Src upon erythropoietin stimulation (3). Stat5 is constitutively active in some leukemic cell types (4). Phosphorylated Stat5 is found in some endothelial cells treated with IL-3, which suggests its involvement in angiogenesis and cell motility (5). Stat5a and Stat5b are independently regulated and activated in various cell types. For instance, interferon treatment predominantly activates Stat5a in U-937 cells and Stat5b in HeLa cells (6).

$303
100 µl
$717
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Flow Cytometry, Western Blotting

Background: Stat5 is activated in response to a wide variety of ligands including IL-2, GM-CSF, growth hormone and prolactin. Phosphorylation at Tyr694 is obligatory for Stat5 activation (1,2). This phosphorylation is mediated by Src upon erythropoietin stimulation (3). Stat5 is constitutively active in some leukemic cell types (4). Phosphorylated Stat5 is found in some endothelial cells treated with IL-3, which suggests its involvement in angiogenesis and cell motility (5). Stat5a and Stat5b are independently regulated and activated in various cell types. For instance, interferon treatment predominantly activates Stat5a in U-937 cells and Stat5b in HeLa cells (6).

$303
100 µl
$717
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Stat5 is activated in response to a wide variety of ligands including IL-2, GM-CSF, growth hormone and prolactin. Phosphorylation at Tyr694 is obligatory for Stat5 activation (1,2). This phosphorylation is mediated by Src upon erythropoietin stimulation (3). Stat5 is constitutively active in some leukemic cell types (4). Phosphorylated Stat5 is found in some endothelial cells treated with IL-3, which suggests its involvement in angiogenesis and cell motility (5). Stat5a and Stat5b are independently regulated and activated in various cell types. For instance, interferon treatment predominantly activates Stat5a in U-937 cells and Stat5b in HeLa cells (6).

$327
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 647 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis of human cells. CST expects that Phospho-Stat5 (Tyr694) (C71E5) Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 647 Conjugate) will display the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated antibody (Phospho-Stat5 (Tyr694) (C71E5) Rabbit mAb #9314).
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Stat5 is activated in response to a wide variety of ligands including IL-2, GM-CSF, growth hormone and prolactin. Phosphorylation at Tyr694 is obligatory for Stat5 activation (1,2). This phosphorylation is mediated by Src upon erythropoietin stimulation (3). Stat5 is constitutively active in some leukemic cell types (4). Phosphorylated Stat5 is found in some endothelial cells treated with IL-3, which suggests its involvement in angiogenesis and cell motility (5). Stat5a and Stat5b are independently regulated and activated in various cell types. For instance, interferon treatment predominantly activates Stat5a in U-937 cells and Stat5b in HeLa cells (6).

$364
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Phospho-Stat5 (Tyr694) (D47E7) XP® Rabbit mAb #4322.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Stat5 is activated in response to a wide variety of ligands including IL-2, GM-CSF, growth hormone and prolactin. Phosphorylation at Tyr694 is obligatory for Stat5 activation (1,2). This phosphorylation is mediated by Src upon erythropoietin stimulation (3). Stat5 is constitutively active in some leukemic cell types (4). Phosphorylated Stat5 is found in some endothelial cells treated with IL-3, which suggests its involvement in angiogenesis and cell motility (5). Stat5a and Stat5b are independently regulated and activated in various cell types. For instance, interferon treatment predominantly activates Stat5a in U-937 cells and Stat5b in HeLa cells (6).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Stat5 is activated in response to a wide variety of ligands including IL-2, GM-CSF, growth hormone and prolactin. Phosphorylation at Tyr694 is obligatory for Stat5 activation (1,2). This phosphorylation is mediated by Src upon erythropoietin stimulation (3). Stat5 is constitutively active in some leukemic cell types (4). Phosphorylated Stat5 is found in some endothelial cells treated with IL-3, which suggests its involvement in angiogenesis and cell motility (5). Stat5a and Stat5b are independently regulated and activated in various cell types. For instance, interferon treatment predominantly activates Stat5a in U-937 cells and Stat5b in HeLa cells (6).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Stat5 is activated in response to a wide variety of ligands including IL-2, GM-CSF, growth hormone and prolactin. Phosphorylation at Tyr694 is obligatory for Stat5 activation (1,2). This phosphorylation is mediated by Src upon erythropoietin stimulation (3). Stat5 is constitutively active in some leukemic cell types (4). Phosphorylated Stat5 is found in some endothelial cells treated with IL-3, which suggests its involvement in angiogenesis and cell motility (5). Stat5a and Stat5b are independently regulated and activated in various cell types. For instance, interferon treatment predominantly activates Stat5a in U-937 cells and Stat5b in HeLa cells (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Stat5 is activated in response to a wide variety of ligands including IL-2, GM-CSF, growth hormone and prolactin. Phosphorylation at Tyr694 is obligatory for Stat5 activation (1,2). This phosphorylation is mediated by Src upon erythropoietin stimulation (3). Stat5 is constitutively active in some leukemic cell types (4). Phosphorylated Stat5 is found in some endothelial cells treated with IL-3, which suggests its involvement in angiogenesis and cell motility (5). Stat5a and Stat5b are independently regulated and activated in various cell types. For instance, interferon treatment predominantly activates Stat5a in U-937 cells and Stat5b in HeLa cells (6).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Forkhead box protein A2 (FoxA2, also known as hepatocyte nuclear factor 3β or HNF3β) is a transcription factor that plays an important role in hepatocyte function (1). FoxA2/HNF3β is required for the activation of hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression during fasting (1). Together with the PGC-1β coactivator, FoxA2/HNF3β stimulates the expression of genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and therefore increases fatty acid metabolism (2). FoxA2/HNF3β, along with PGC-1β, also activates the expression of microsomal triacylglycerol transfer protein (MTP) and promotes VLDL secretion (2). In addition to its roles in metabolic syndromes, FoxA2/HNF3β is essential for development of the endoderm and midline structures in mouse embryos (3-5).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) plays a significant role in cholesterol transport from the cytoplasmic outer membrane to the inner mitochondrial membrane (1). The 37 kDa precursor is cleaved to generate an active 28 kDa protein capable of facilitating cholesterol metabolism into pregnenolone (2,3). StAR is prevalently expressed in mitochondria of steroid-producing adrenal and gonadal tissue (3). Abnormalities in StAR gene expression are impacted in autosomal Lipoid Congenial Adrenal Hyperplasia (LCAH) resulting in defects in pregnenolone and cortisol synthesis (4). The mechanism of cholesterol binding to StAR has yet to be elucidated (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes. CYP2D6 is located in the endoplasmic reticulum where it oxidizes substrates such as drugs and environmental chemicals (1,2). CYP2D6 metabolizes more than 25% of current commonly used drugs including antidepressants, antipsychotics, analgesics, beta-adrenergic blocking agents, antiarrythmics, and antiemetics. The CYP2D6 gene is highly polymorphic in humans, resulting in phenotypes that vary from poor metabolizer to super metabolizer. A patient's CYP2D6 genotype was shown to be a good predictor of drug response and side effects and is thus used to guide treatments (3-5). Although abundantly expressed in liver, CYP2D6 is also expressed in other organs including brain. In brain, CYP2D6 and other CYP family members are expressed in a cell-specific, region-specific manner (6-8). CYP2D6 functions as a neuroprotective enzyme that increases with age and is induced by nicotine and alcohol (9,10).

$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Chromatin IP-seq, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The orphan nuclear receptor, steroidogenic factor 1 (STF-1, also called Ad4BP), is encoded by the NR5A1 gene and plays an instrumental role in directing the transcriptional control of steroidogenesis (1). Initially identified as a tissue-specific transcriptional regulator of cytochrome P450 steroid hydroxylases, research studies of both global (2) and tissue-specific knockout mice (3-6) have demonstrated that STF-1 is required for the development of adrenal glands, gonads, ventromedial hypothalamus, and for the proper functioning of pituitary gonadotropes. Indeed, humans with mutations that render STF-1 transcriptionally inactive can present with testicular failure, ovarian failure, and adrenal insufficiency (7,8). Furthermore, dysregulation of STF-1 has been linked to diseases such as endometriosis (9) and adrenocortical carcinoma (10).Like other nuclear hormone receptors, STF-1 has a modular domain structure composed of an amino-terminal zinc finger DNA-binding domain, a ligand-binding domain, a carboxy-terminal AF-2 activation domain, and a hinge region with AF-1-like activation activity. STF-1 also contains a fushi tarazu factor 1 box, which functions as an accessory DNA binding domain (11). STF-1 is primarily phosphorylated at Ser203, which is thought to enhance its transcriptional activity by promoting complex formation with transcriptional cofactors (12). In addition to phosphorylation at Ser203, STF-1 is subject to SUMO conjugation and acetylation at ε-amino groups of target lysine residues. Whereas SUMOylation represses STF-1 function (13,14), acetylation enhances its transcriptional activity (15).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C2 (AKR1C2) is a member of a large superfamily of aldo-keto reductases that metabolize an array of substrates in a NADPH-dependent manner. AKR1C2 is the 3-α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSD) responsible for metabolizing and inactivating the androgen hormone 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) to 3α-androstanediol (1). Research studies demonstrate an increase in AKR1C2 expression in cases of advanced prostate cancer (2). Both AKR1C2 and the related reductase, AKR1C3, are implicated in enhancing PI3K/Akt signaling in prostate cancer by reducing prostaglandin D2 to the more stable 9α, 11β-PGF2α (2). In addition, research studies demonstrate an increase in AKR1C2 expression in some ovarian endometriosis specimens, suggesting the participation of AKR1C2 in the promotion of progesterone metabolism in ovarian endometriosis (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Reverse orientation c-erbA gene α (Rev-erbα, EAR-1, or NR1D1) is a widely expressed member of the orphan nuclear receptor family of proteins (1). Rev-erbα is highly expressed in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, brain and liver, and regulates cellular proliferation and differentiation. Expression increases during differentiation in adipocytes and ectopic expression of Rev-erbα potentiates the adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells (2). In addition, expression oscillates with circadian rhythm in liver cells and Rev-erbα regulates expression of BMAL1, ApoA-I and ApoC-III, all key regulators of circadian rhythm (3-7). Phosphorylation of Rev-erbα Ser55 and Ser59 by GSK-3β appears to stabilize Rev-erbα protein levels and is important for synchronizing and maintaining the circadian clock (8). Rev-erbα also regulates inflammation by targeting the NF-κB responsive genes IL-6 and COX-2 (9). Rev-erbα lacks the activation function 2 domain required for ligand-dependent activation of transcription by other members of the nuclear receptor family; thus it behaves as a constitutive repressor protein, recruiting the nuclear receptor co-repressor (N-CoR)/HDAC3 complex to target genes to repress transcription (10).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Legumain (LGMN) is an asparaginyl endopeptidase that mediates lysosomal processing of antigen for class II MHC presentation. Under normal conditions, LGMN is mostly found in lysosomes. However, its expression level, cellular compartmentalization, and function may change under certain conditions, including cancer (1, 2, 3). In colorectal cancer, LGMN is upregulated and is found extracellularly and in the nucleus in both primary tumors and colorectal cancer cell lines (4, 5). Legumain forms homodimers and may be activated by postranstranslational modifications, including autoproteolytic cleavage, as it moves from one cellular compartment to another (6).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The WWOX (WW domain-containing oxidoreductase) gene encodes a protein with two WW domains followed by a short-chain dehydrogenase domain that was identified from a genomic region 16q23 of high instability, FRA16D (1,2). The mouse homolog, termed Wox1, was found to enhance TNFα-mediated apoptosis (3). The WWOX gene is disrupted in a many cancer types by deletions or translocation which has revealed a tumor suppressor function (4-7). In contrast, high levels of WWOX have been shown in shown in premetastic cancers, including breast and prostate (8-10). Stress stimuli can induce tyrosine phosphorylation within the first WW domain (Tyr33), followed by nuclear translocation and binding to and stabilizing the p53 tumor suppressor protein (11). WWOX and p53 can induce apoptosis in a synergistic manner. Tyrosine phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of WWOX has been implicated in the progression of cancers to metastatic states (10).