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Rat Dna Ligation During Dna Repair

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Double stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) are the most toxic of DNA lesions. They occur in response to genotoxic stress, and they are also an obligate intermediate in the V(D)J recombination events in the immune system. In mammalian cells, the most prominent mechanism by which cells deal with DSBs is known as NHEJ (non-homologous end-joining), and involves a core group of proteins that includes Ku, DNA-PK, XRCC4, and XLF (1).PAXX, (PAralog of XRCC4 and XLF, also known as C9orf142 or XLS), is a more recently identified component of the NHEJ machinery whose crystal structure resembles that of XRCC4 (2). PAXX directly interacts with Ku, and promotes accumulation of Ku at DSBs (2,3). Depletion of PAXX impairs cellular DSB repair (2-4,5). Paxx -/- mice develop normally with mild radiosensitivity, but a Paxx/Xlf double knockout is embryonic lethal in mice, indicating synthetic lethality between Paxx and Xlf (6). Paxx/Xlf double knockout have increased apopotosis in post-mitotic motor neurons, as well as impaired development of the adaptive immune system (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: High mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) belongs to a family of highly conserved proteins that contain HMG box domains (1,2). All three family members (HMGB1, HMGB2, and HMGB3) contain two HMG box domains and a C-terminal acidic domain. HMGB1 is a widely expressed and highly abundant protein (2). HMGB2 is widely expressed during embryonic development, but is restricted to lymphoid organs and testis in adult animals (3). HMGB3 is only expressed during embryogenesis (4). While expression varies, the biochemical properties of the different family members may be indistinguishable. The HMG box domains facilitate the binding of HMGB proteins to the minor groove of DNA, which results in local bending of the DNA double helix (1,2). HMGB proteins are recruited by and help facilitate the assembly of site-specific DNA binding proteins to their cognate binding sites in chromatin. For example, HMGB1 facilitates the binding of Hox proteins, Oct-1, p53, Rel proteins, and steroid hormone receptor proteins to their target gene promoters (1,2). In addition to their functions in the nucleus, HMGB proteins play a significant role in extracellular signaling associated with inflammation (5,6). HMGB1 is massively released into the extracellular environment during cell necrosis, but not apoptosis. Extracellular HMGB1 "alarms" the innate immune system by acting as a chemoattractant for inflammatory leukocytes, smooth muscle cells, and stem cells, functioning as an immune adjuvant for soluble and particulate antigens, and triggering activation of T cells and dendritic cells. In addition, activated monocytes, macrophages and, dendritic cells also secrete HMGB1, forming a positive feedback loop that results in the release of additional cytokines and neutrophils. Hypoxia has also been shown to cause the release of HMGB1 in the liver, and some studies suggest a role for extracellular HMGB1 in tumor homeostasis (5,6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: High mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) belongs to a family of highly conserved proteins that contain HMG box domains (1,2). All three family members (HMGB1, HMGB2, and HMGB3) contain two HMG box domains and a C-terminal acidic domain. HMGB1 is a widely expressed and highly abundant protein (2). HMGB2 is widely expressed during embryonic development, but is restricted to lymphoid organs and testis in adult animals (3). HMGB3 is only expressed during embryogenesis (4). While expression varies, the biochemical properties of the different family members may be indistinguishable. The HMG box domains facilitate the binding of HMGB proteins to the minor groove of DNA, which results in local bending of the DNA double helix (1,2). HMGB proteins are recruited by and help facilitate the assembly of site-specific DNA binding proteins to their cognate binding sites in chromatin. For example, HMGB1 facilitates the binding of Hox proteins, Oct-1, p53, Rel proteins, and steroid hormone receptor proteins to their target gene promoters (1,2). In addition to their functions in the nucleus, HMGB proteins play a significant role in extracellular signaling associated with inflammation (5,6). HMGB1 is massively released into the extracellular environment during cell necrosis, but not apoptosis. Extracellular HMGB1 "alarms" the innate immune system by acting as a chemoattractant for inflammatory leukocytes, smooth muscle cells, and stem cells, functioning as an immune adjuvant for soluble and particulate antigens, and triggering activation of T cells and dendritic cells. In addition, activated monocytes, macrophages and, dendritic cells also secrete HMGB1, forming a positive feedback loop that results in the release of additional cytokines and neutrophils. Hypoxia has also been shown to cause the release of HMGB1 in the liver, and some studies suggest a role for extracellular HMGB1 in tumor homeostasis (5,6).

$305
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to biotin under optimal conditions. The biotinylated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated HMGB1 (D3E5) Rabbit mAb #6893.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: High mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) belongs to a family of highly conserved proteins that contain HMG box domains (1,2). All three family members (HMGB1, HMGB2, and HMGB3) contain two HMG box domains and a C-terminal acidic domain. HMGB1 is a widely expressed and highly abundant protein (2). HMGB2 is widely expressed during embryonic development, but is restricted to lymphoid organs and testis in adult animals (3). HMGB3 is only expressed during embryogenesis (4). While expression varies, the biochemical properties of the different family members may be indistinguishable. The HMG box domains facilitate the binding of HMGB proteins to the minor groove of DNA, which results in local bending of the DNA double helix (1,2). HMGB proteins are recruited by and help facilitate the assembly of site-specific DNA binding proteins to their cognate binding sites in chromatin. For example, HMGB1 facilitates the binding of Hox proteins, Oct-1, p53, Rel proteins, and steroid hormone receptor proteins to their target gene promoters (1,2). In addition to their functions in the nucleus, HMGB proteins play a significant role in extracellular signaling associated with inflammation (5,6). HMGB1 is massively released into the extracellular environment during cell necrosis, but not apoptosis. Extracellular HMGB1 "alarms" the innate immune system by acting as a chemoattractant for inflammatory leukocytes, smooth muscle cells, and stem cells, functioning as an immune adjuvant for soluble and particulate antigens, and triggering activation of T cells and dendritic cells. In addition, activated monocytes, macrophages and, dendritic cells also secrete HMGB1, forming a positive feedback loop that results in the release of additional cytokines and neutrophils. Hypoxia has also been shown to cause the release of HMGB1 in the liver, and some studies suggest a role for extracellular HMGB1 in tumor homeostasis (5,6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are potentially hazardous lesions that can be induced by ionizing radiation (IR), radiomimetic chemicals, or DNA replication inhibitors. Cells sense and repair DSBs via two distinct but partly overlapping signaling pathways, nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). Research studies have shown that defects in both pathways are associated with human disease, including cancer (reviewed in 1).DSBs that arise during S or G2 phase are repaired via homologous recombination (HR), using the replicated sister chromatid as a repair template. Rad51 recombinase, a eukaryotic homologue of E. coli RecA, polymerizes and forms a filament along single-stranded DNA, mediating HR with the help of auxiliary proteins, including Rad54 and BRCA2 (reviewed in 2,3). BRCA2 binds Rad51 and targets it to single-stranded DNA, allowing it to displace replication protein A (RPA) (4). Five Rad51 paralogs exist in vertebrates (XRCC2, XRCC3, Rad51B, Rad51C, and Rad51D) and they all appear to be required for efficient HR (5).Researchers have found that mutations in the Rad51 gene may be related to breast cancer risk (6). Some studies have implicated Rad51 as a potential marker for pancreatic cancer (7).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: High mobility group protein B2 (HMGB2) belongs to a family of highly conserved proteins that contain HMG box domains (1,2). All three family members (HMGB1, HMGB2, and HMGB3) contain two HMG box domains and a C-terminal acidic domain. HMGB1 is a widely expressed and highly abundant protein (2). HMGB2 is widely expressed during embryonic development, but it is restricted to lymphoid organs and testis in adult animals (3). HMGB3 is only expressed during embryogenesis (4). While expression varies, the biochemical properties of the different family members may be indistinguishable. The HMG box domains facilitate the binding of HMGB proteins to the minor groove of DNA, which results in local bending of the DNA double helix (1,2). HMGB proteins are recruited by and help facilitate the assembly of site-specific DNA binding proteins to their cognate binding sites in chromatin. For example, HMGB1 and HMGB2 facilitate the binding of Hox proteins, Oct proteins, p53, Rel proteins, and steroid hormone receptor proteins to their target gene promoters (1,2). Furthermore, HMGB2 interacts with RAG1 to facilitate RAG complex binding to the recombinant signal sequence (RSS) and stimulate DNA-bending and subsequent VDJ cleavage at antigen receptor genes (5,6). In addition to their functions in the nucleus, HMGB proteins play a significant role in extracellular signaling associated with inflammation. HMGB2 is secreted by myeloid cells and promotes proliferation and migration of endothelial cells by binding to the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) (7). Research studies have shown that HMGB2 overexpression in hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with poor prognosis and shorter survival time (8).