Buy 3 and get the 4th FREE!* | Learn More >>

Neuroinflammation

Neuroinflammation is a condition observed in the central nervous system (CNS) in response to infection, toxic metabolites, traumatic injury, or autoimmunity. Immune cells, such as microglia, macrophages, and neuroepithelium-derived astrocytes, monitor synaptic homeostasis and facilitate the clearance of apoptotic cells in response to injury in the CNS to protect brain function. The immune system may play a significant role in shaping the brain during development and mediating damage, regeneration, and repair. These processes may be compromised in neurodegenerative diseases.

Start with these targets

TREM2

TREM2 is an immune receptor expressed on the cell surface of microglia, macrophages, osteoclasts, and immature dendritic cells. TREM2 forms a receptor-signaling complex with DAP12 to initiate cellular events like phagocytosis. TREM2 signaling is critical for the activation of microglia and may contribute to Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis by impairing microglia response, which leads to a buildup of β-amyloid.

Products
TREM2 (D8I4C) Rabbit mAb #91068 – W, IP, IF-IC
TREM2 (D8I4C) Rabbit mAb #91068

TREM2 (D8I4C) Rabbit mAb #91068: Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of THP-1 (positive, left) and HL-60 (negative, right) cells using TREM2 (D8I4C) Rabbit mAb (green). Actin filaments were labeled with DyLight™ 554 Phalloidin #13054 (red). Blue pseudocolor = DRAQ5® #4084 (fluorescent DNA dye).

ASC/TMS1

ASC/TMS1 is an adaptor protein that mediates formation of the inflammasome in response to tissue damage or infectious threats. Abnormal inflammasome activity may contribute to Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson’s disease progression. In microglia, the NLRP3 inflammasome becomes activated when these cells sense proteins such as misfolded or aggregated beta-amyloid. ASC specks derived from microglia may also cross-seed beta-amyloid in Alzheimer’s disease. Several other inflammasomes have been described in microglia and the other cells of the brain, including astrocytes and neurons, where their activation and subsequent caspase 1 cleavage contribute to disease development and progression.

Products
ASC/TMS1 (D2W8U) Rabbit mAb (Mouse Specific) #67824 – W, IP, IF-IC, IF-F, F
ASC/TMS1 (D2W8U) Rabbit mAb (Mouse Specific) #67824

ASC/TMS1 (D2W8U) Rabbit mAb (Mouse Specific) #67824: Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of mouse primary bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) either untreated (upper left) or treated with LPS (50 ng/ml, 4 hr, middle) or LPS followed by ATP (5 mM, 45 min, upper right), and J774A.1 (lower left) or Raw 264.7 (lower right) cells, using ASC/TMS1 (D2W8U) Rabbit mAb (Mouse Specific) (green). Blue pseudocolor = DRAQ5® #4084 (fluorescent DNA dye). Note the translocation of ASC to inflammasomes following stimulation with LPS and ATP (white arrows).

CD11b/ITGAM

Cluster of differentiation molecule 11b (CD11b)/Integrin alpha M (ITGAM) is a transmembrane protein forming heterodimers that are composed of α and β subunits. CD11b/ITGAM is expressed by, and commonly used as a marker for, myeloid lineage cells such as neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, and microglia.

α-SCD11b/ITGAM (M1/70) Rat mAb #46512

CD11b/ITGAM (M1/70) Rat mAb #46512: Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of brain from the 5XFAD mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease using CD11b/ITGAM (M1/70) Rat mAb (green) and β-Amyloid (D54D2) XP® Rabbit mAb #8243 (red). Sections were mounted in ProLong® Gold Antifade Reagent with DAPI #8961 (blue).

CD11c/ITGAX

CD11c/ITGAX is a dendritic cell marker that forms a heterodimer with CD18. Transcriptional profiling of the brains from beta-amyloid mouse models revealed a TREM2-dependent increase in CD11c/ITGAX expression in microglia. Therefore, CD11c/ITGAX may serve as a marker of microglia associated with stage 2 disease. Changes in CD11c/ITGAX expression has also been observed in Huntington’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Products
CD11c (D1V9Y) Rabbit mAb #97585 – W, IHC-P, IF-IC, IF-F
CD11c (D1V9Y) Rabbit mAb #9758

CD11c (D1V9Y) Rabbit mAb #97585: Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of mouse spleen (left) and mouse kidney (right) using CD11c (D1V9Y) Rabbit mAb. Nuclei were labeled with ProLong® Gold Antifade reagent with DAPI #8961 (blue).

iNOS

Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression has been observed in brain glial cells and invading macrophages in response to injury. It is normally induced in an oxidative environment or in response to proinflammatory cytokines. iNOS has been linked with Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease.

Products
iNOS (D6B6S) Rabbit mAb #13120 – W, IP, IF-IC, F
iNOS (D6B6S) Rabbit mAb #13120

iNOS (D6B6S) Rabbit mAb #13120: Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of Raw 264.7 cells, untreated (left) or treated with LPS (1 μg/ml, 16 hr; right), using iNOS (D6B6S) Rabbit mAb (green). Blue pseudocolor = DRAQ5® #4084 (fluorescent DNA dye).