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Inhibition of Apoptosis

© Cell Signaling Technology. All Rights Reserved.
Inhibition of Apoptosis

Pathway Description:

Cell survival requires the active inhibition of apoptosis, which is accomplished by inhibiting the expression of pro-apoptotic factors as well as promoting the expression of anti-apoptotic factors. The PI3K pathway, activated by many survival factors, leads to the activation of Akt, an important player in survival signaling. PTEN negatively regulates the PI3K/Akt pathway. Activated Akt phosphorylates and inhibits the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members Bad, Bax, caspase-9, GSK-3, and FoxO1. Many growth factors and cytokines induce anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members. The Jaks and Src phosphorylate and activate Stat3, which in turn induces the expression of Bcl-xL and Bcl-2. Erk1/2 and PKC activate p90RSK, which activates CREB and induces the expression of Bcl-xL and Bcl-2. These Bcl-2 family members protect the integrity of mitochondria, preventing cytochrome c release and the subsequent activation of caspase-9. TNF-α may activate both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic pathways; TNF-α can induce apoptosis by activating caspase-8 and -10, but can also inhibit apoptosis via NF-κB, which induces the expression of anti-apoptotic genes such as Bcl-2. cIAP1/2 inhibit TNF-α signaling by binding to TRAF2. FLIP inhibits the activation of caspase-8.

Selected Reviews:

We would like to thank Prof. Junying Yuan, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, for reviewing this diagram.

created September 2008

revised November 2012

Acetylase
Acetylase
Metabolic Enzyme
Metabolic Enzyme
Adaptor
Adaptor
Methyltransferase or G-protein
Methyltransferase or G-protein
Adaptor
Apoptosis/Autophagy Regulator
Phosphatase
Phosphatase
Cell Cycle Regulator
Cell Cycle Regulator
Protein Complex
Protein Complex
Deacetylase or Cytoskeletal Protein
Deacetylase or Cytoskeletal Protein
Ubiquitin/SUMO Ligase or Deubiquitinase
Ubiquitin/SUMO Ligase or Deubiquitinase
Growth Factor/Cytokine/Development Protein
Growth Factor/Cytokine/Development Protein
Transcription Factor or Translation Factor
Transcription Factor or Translation Factor
GTPase/GAP/GEF
GTPase/GAP/GEF
Receptor
Receptor
Kinase
Kinase
Other
Other
 
Direct Process
Direct Process
Tentative Process
Tentative Process
Translocation Process
Translocation Process
Stimulatory Modification
Stimulatory Modification
Inhibitory Modification
Inhibitory Modification
Transcriptional Modification
Transcriptional Modification