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SAPK/JNK Signaling Cascades

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SAPK/JNK Signaling Cascades

Pathway Description:

Stress-activated protein kinases (SAPK)/Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNK) are members of the MAPK family and are activated by a variety of environmental stresses, inflam- matory cytokines, growth factors, and GPCR agonists. Stress signals are delivered to this cascade by small GTPases of the Rho family (Rac, Rho, cdc42). As with the other MAPKs, the membrane proximal kinase is a MAPKKK, typically MEKK1–4, or a member of the mixed lineage kinases (MLK) that phosphorylates and activates MKK4 (SEK) or MKK7, the SAPK/JNK kinases. Alternatively, MKK4/7 can be activated by a member of the germinal center kinase (GCK) family in a GTPase-independent manner. SAPK/JNK translocates to the nucleus where it can regulate the activity of multiple transcription factors.

Selected Reviews:

We would like to thank Prof. John Blenis, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, for reviewing this diagram.

created January 2002

revised October 2012

Acetylase
Acetylase
Metabolic Enzyme
Metabolic Enzyme
Adaptor
Adaptor
Methyltransferase or G-protein
Methyltransferase or G-protein
Adaptor
Apoptosis/Autophagy Regulator
Phosphatase
Phosphatase
Cell Cycle Regulator
Cell Cycle Regulator
Protein Complex
Protein Complex
Deacetylase or Cytoskeletal Protein
Deacetylase or Cytoskeletal Protein
Ubiquitin/SUMO Ligase or Deubiquitinase
Ubiquitin/SUMO Ligase or Deubiquitinase
Growth Factor/Cytokine/Development Protein
Growth Factor/Cytokine/Development Protein
Transcription Factor or Translation Factor
Transcription Factor or Translation Factor
GTPase/GAP/GEF
GTPase/GAP/GEF
Receptor
Receptor
Kinase
Kinase
Other
Other
 
Direct Process
Direct Process
Tentative Process
Tentative Process
Translocation Process
Translocation Process
Stimulatory Modification
Stimulatory Modification
Inhibitory Modification
Inhibitory Modification
Transcriptional Modification
Transcriptional Modification