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14011
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS)
Activators & Inhibitors
Chemical Modulators

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) #14011

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Lipopolysaccharides (LPS): Image 1

Western blot analysis of extracts from THP-1 cells, differentiated with TPA #4174 (80 nM for 24 hr) and treated with 1 μg/ml LPS for the indicated times, using Phospho-NF-κB p65 (Ser536) (93H1) Rabbit mAb #3033 (upper) and NF-κB p65 (C22B4) Rabbit mAb #4764 (lower).

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS): Image 2

Western blot analysis of extracts from THP-1 cells, untreated (-) or LPS-treated (100 ng/ml, 3 hr; +), using IL-1β (3A6) Mouse mAb #12242 (upper) or β-Actin (D6A8) Rabbit mAb #8457 (lower).

Product Usage Information

For a 1 mg/ml stock, reconstitute the 10 mg in 10 ml sterile PBS. Working concentrations and length of treatment can vary depending on the desired effect, but it is typically used at 10-1000 ng/ml for 15 min-24 hours. Soluble in PBS and cell culture medium at 5 mg/ml and 1 mg/ml, respectively.

Storage

Store lyophilized at 4ºC. In lyophilized form, the product is stable for 24 months. Once in solution store at -80ºC and use within 3 months to prevent loss of potency. Aliquot to avoid multiple freeze/thaw cycles.

Product Description

LPS is supplied as a lyophilized powder and is from E. coli serotype O111:B4. It is purified via phenol extraction.

Solubility Soluble in PBS and H2O at 5mg/ml and cell culture medium at 1mg/ml.

Background

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), also known as endotoxin, is a major glycolipid constituent of the outer cell wall of gram-negative bacteria. LPS molecules typically consist of a strain-specific distal polysaccharide side chain known as the O-antigen, a hydrophilic core oligosaccharide, and a hydrophobic domain referred to as lipid A. Lipid A is covalently bound to the outer bacterial membrane and is responsible for the toxicity of LPS (1-3). LPS is a potent activator of the proinflammatory response in many mammalian cell types, including macrophages, monocytes, and endothelial cells. Investigators have demonstrated that LPS binds to the CD14/TLR4/MD2 receptor complex, which in turn induces inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, Interleukin-1, and IFN-α, as well as numerous inflammatory proteins such as iNOS, NF-κB, RIG-1, and IRF-3 (4-6).

  1. Raetz, C.R. and Whitfield, C. (2002) Annu Rev Biochem 71, 635-700.
  2. Rietschel, E.T. et al. (1994) FASEB J 8, 217-25.
  3. Maeshima, N. and Fernandez, R.C. (2013) Front Cell Infect Microbiol 3, 3.
  4. Pålsson-McDermott, E.M. and O'Neill, L.A. (2004) Immunology 113, 153-62.
  5. Wang, J. et al. (2008) J Immunol 180, 8011-9.
  6. Zhang, F.X. et al. (1999) J Biol Chem 274, 7611-4.

Limited Uses

Except as otherwise expressly agreed in a writing signed by a legally authorized representative of CST, the following terms apply to Products provided by CST, its affiliates or its distributors. Any Customer's terms and conditions that are in addition to, or different from, those contained herein, unless separately accepted in writing by a legally authorized representative of CST, are rejected and are of no force or effect.

Products are labeled with For Research Use Only or a similar labeling statement and have not been approved, cleared, or licensed by the FDA or other regulatory foreign or domestic entity, for any purpose. Customer shall not use any Product for any diagnostic or therapeutic purpose, or otherwise in any manner that conflicts with its labeling statement. Products sold or licensed by CST are provided for Customer as the end-user and solely for research and development uses. Any use of Product for diagnostic, prophylactic or therapeutic purposes, or any purchase of Product for resale (alone or as a component) or other commercial purpose, requires a separate license from CST. Customer shall (a) not sell, license, loan, donate or otherwise transfer or make available any Product to any third party, whether alone or in combination with other materials, or use the Products to manufacture any commercial products, (b) not copy, modify, reverse engineer, decompile, disassemble or otherwise attempt to discover the underlying structure or technology of the Products, or use the Products for the purpose of developing any products or services that would compete with CST's products or services, (c) not alter or remove from the Products any trademarks, trade names, logos, patent or copyright notices or markings, (d) use the Products solely in accordance with CST's Product Terms of Sale and any applicable documentation, and (e) comply with any license, terms of service or similar agreement with respect to any third party products or services used by Customer in connection with the Products.

For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.
Cell Signaling Technology is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
To Purchase # 14011S
Product # Size Price
14011S
10 mg $ 85