Chemical structure of Tunicamycin.
Western blot analysis of C2C12 cell extracts, untreated (-) or treated with Tunicamycin (2 μg/ml, 8 hr; +), using CHOP (D46F1) Rabbit mAb #5554 (upper) or β-Actin Antibody #4967 (lower).
Tunicamycin is supplied as a lyophilized powder. For a 5 mg/ml stock, reconstitute the 5 mg in 1 ml DMSO. Working concentrations and length of treatments vary depending on the desired effect, but it is typically used at 0.1-10 μg/ml for 0.5-20 hours.
Solubility: Soluble in DMSO, DMF or Pyridine.
Store lyophilized or in solution at -20ºC, desiccated. In lyophilized form, the chemical is stable for 24 months. Once in solution, use within 3 months to prevent loss of potency. Aliquot to avoid multiple freeze/thaw cycles.
|Molecular Weight||830.9 g/mol|
Homolog A: C37H60N4O16
Homolog B: C38H62N4O16
Homolog C: C39H64N4O16
Homolog D: C40H66N4O16
|Solubility||Soluble in DMSO at 40mg/ml and EtOH at 5mg/ml.|
Isolated from Streptomyces lysosuperificus, tunicamycin is a nucleoside antibiotic that inhibits N-linked glycosylation in glycoprotein synthesis. Composed of tunicamycins A, B, C and D, the compound competitively blocks the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate (GlcNAc-1-P) from UDP-GlcNAc to dolichol-P (1,2). By preventing glycoprotein synthesis, tunicamycin inhibits the formation of the “viral coat” known as the tunica or capsid in both RNA and DNA viruses, and thus exhibits antiviral properties (3). Research studies have shown that tunicamycin will arrest cells in G1 phase, preventing them from entering S-phase and increasing the expression of PERK (4,5). Following N-linked glycosylation inhibition, tunicamycin induces autophagy in response to ER stress, ultimately upregulating CHOP and BIP (6,7).