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Dec 31st Santa Cruz will discontinue a
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a result of the USDA settlement that was
made public May 19th.

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REACTIVITY SENSITIVITY MW (kDa) Isotype
H M R Mk Endogenous Rabbit IgG
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Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of HeLa (left) and MCF7 (right) cells using Grp94 (D6X2Q) XP® Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 488 Conjugate) (green) and β-Actin (8H10D10) Mouse mAb #3700 (red). Blue pseudocolor = DRAQ5® #4084 (fluorescent DNA dye).

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Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

A. Solutions and Reagents

NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalently purified water.

  1. 20X Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS): (9808) To prepare 1L 1X PBS: add 50 ml 20X PBS to 950 ml dH2O, mix. Adjust pH to 8.0.
  2. Formaldehyde: 16%, methanol free, Polysciences, Inc. (cat# 18814), use fresh and store opened vials at 4°C in dark, dilute in 1X PBS for use.
  3. Methanol, 100%
  4. Blocking Buffer (1X PBS / 5% normal goat serum (#5425) / 0.3% Triton™ X-100): To prepare 10 ml: add 0.5 ml normal goat serum and 0.5 ml 20X PBS to 9.0 ml dH2O, mix. While stirring, add 30 µl Triton™ X-100.
  5. Antibody Dilution Buffer (1X PBS / 1% BSA / 0.3% Triton X-100): To prepare 10 ml, add 30 µl Triton™ X-100 to 10 ml 1X PBS. Mix well then add 0.1 g BSA (9998), mix.
  6. Prolong® Gold AntiFade Reagent (#9071), Prolong® Gold AntiFade Reagent with DAPI (#8961).

B. Specimen Preparation - Cultured Cell Lines (IF-IC)

NOTE: Cells should be grown, treated, fixed and stained directly in multiwell plates, chamber slides or on coverslips.

  1. Aspirate liquid, then cover cells to a depth of 2–3 mm with 4% formaldehyde in 1X PBS.
    NOTE: Formaldehyde is toxic, use only in fume hood.
  2. Allow cells to fix for 15 minutes at room temperature.
  3. Aspirate fixative, rinse three times in 1X PBS for 5 minutes each.
  4. Proceed with Immunostaining (Section C).

C. Immunostaining

NOTE: All subsequent incubations should be carried out at room temperature unless otherwise noted in a humid light-tight box or covered dish/plate to prevent drying and fluorochrome fading.

  1. Methanol Permeabilization Step: Cover cells with ice-cold 100% methanol (use enough to cover completely to a depth of 3–5 mm, DO NOT LET DRY), incubate in methanol for 10 minutes at –20°C, rinse in 1X PBS for 5 minutes.
  2. Block specimen in Blocking Buffer for 60 minutes.
  3. While blocking, prepare primary antibody by diluting as indicated on datasheet in Antibody Dilution Buffer.
  4. Aspirate blocking solution, apply diluted primary antibody.
  5. Incubate overnight at 4°C.
  6. Rinse three times in 1X PBS for 5 minutes each.
  7. Coverslip slides with Prolong® Gold Antifade Reagent (#9071), Prolong® Gold AntiFade Reagent with DAPI (#8961).
  8. For best results examine specimens immediately using appropriate excitation wavelength. For long term storage, store slides flat at 4°C protected from light.

posted November 2006

revised December 2010

Protocol Id: 220

Product Usage Information

Application Dilutions
Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry) 1:50

Storage: Supplied in PBS (pH 7.2), less than 0.1% sodium azide and 2 mg/ml BSA. Store at 4°C. Do not aliquot the antibody. Protect from light. Do not freeze.

Specificity / Sensitivity

Grp94 (D6X2Q) XP® Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 488 Conjugate) recognizes endogenous levels of total Grp94 protein.


Species Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat, Monkey

Source / Purification

Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Leu397 of human Grp94 protein.

Product Description

This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct immunofluorescence analysis of human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Grp94 (D6X2Q) XP® Rabbit mAb #20292.


Secretory proteins are synthesized on polysomes and translocated into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Inside ER, these proteins are often modified by disulfide bond formation, amino-linked glycosylation and folding. The ER contains a pool of molecular chaperones, including Grp94, to help ensure correct protein folding. Grp94 is a glucose-regulated protein (1) with sequence homology to Hsp90 (2). In addition to its role in helping to facilitate folding of a number of secretory proteins to their correct conformation (3), studies suggest that Grp94 derived from cancer cells also induces anti-tumor immune responses in mouse tumor models (4, 5). One way in which Grp94 promotes tumor immunogenicity is its ability to bind to and present tumor-derived peptides as antigens (6). Furthermore, Grp94 has also been shown to induce maturation of dendritic cells (7). Taken together, Grp94 functions both as a tumor-specific antigen and as an activator of antigen-presenting cells to elicit an anti-cancer immune response (8).


1.  Lee, A.S. et al. (1981) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 4922-4925.

2.  Sorger, P.K. and Pelham, H.R. (1987) J. Mol. Biol. 194, 341-344.

3.  Argon, Y. and Simen, B.B. (1999) Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. 10, 495-505.

4.  Blachere, N.E. et al. (1997) J. Exp. Med. 186, 1315-1322.

5.  Tamura, Y. et al. (1997) Science 278, 117-120.

6.  Schild, H. and Rammensee, H.G. (2000) Nat. Immunol. 1, 100-101.

7.  Singh-Jasuja, H. et al. (2000) Eur. J. Immunol. 30, 2211-2215.

8.  Nicchitta, C.V. et al. (2004) Cell Stress Chaperones 9, 325-331.


Entrez-Gene Id 7184
Swiss-Prot Acc. P14625


For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.
Cell Signaling Technology is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
XP is a registered trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
Alexa Fluor is a registered trademark of Life Technologies Corporation.
DRAQ5 is a registered trademark of Biostatus Limited.
The Alexa Fluor dye conjugates in this product are sold under license from Life Technologies Corporation, for research use only excluding use in combination with DNA microarrays and high content screening (HCS).
This product is provided under an intellectual property license from Life Technologies Corporation. The transfer of this product is contingent on the buyer using the purchased product solely in research, including use with HCS or other automated imaging applications but excluding use in combination with DNA microarrays. The buyer must not sell or otherwise transfer this product or its components for (a) diagnostic, therapeutic or prophylactic purposes; (b) testing, analysis or screening services, or information in return for compensation on a per-test basis; (c) manufacturing or quality assurance or quality control, or (d) resale, whether or not resold for use in research. For information on purchasing a license to this product for purposes other than as described above, contact Life Technologies Corporation, 5791 Van Allen Way, Carlsbad, CA 92008 USA or outlicensing@lifetech.com.

84438
Grp94 (D6X2Q) XP® Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 488 Conjugate)