|Product Includes||Quantity (with Count)||Storage Temp|
|GST-Human PAK1-PBD||1 x 600 µg||-20°C|
|Cdc42 Mouse mAb||1 x 300 µl||-20°C|
|GDP||1 x 50 µl||-80°C|
|GTP γS||1 x 50 µl||-80°C|
|Glutathione Resin||1 x 3 ml||+4°C|
|SDS Sample Buffer||1 x 1.5 ml||+4°C|
|Lysis/Binding/Wash Buffer||1 x 100 ml||+4°C|
|Spin Cup and Collection Tubes||1 x 30 ea||RT|
NOTE: We recommend making 1 mg/ml lysate in 1X Lysis/Binding/Wash Buffer for the following steps.
Perform the following treatments, GTPγS (positive control) and GDP (negative control), to ensure the immunoprecipitation procedures are working properly. Use 500 µg of cell lysate for each treatment. For best results, aliquot GTPγS and GDP at first use to minimize freeze/thaw cycles.
NOTE: Volumes are for 10 cm x 10 cm (100 cm2) of membrane; for different sized membranes, adjust volumes accordingly.
NOTE: CST recommends loading prestained molecular weight markers (#74124, 10 µl/lane) to verify electrotransfer and biotinylated protein ladder (#7727, 10 µl/lane) to determine molecular weights. 4-20% acrylamide or Tris-glycine gel provides best separation.
NOTE: LumiGLO® substrate can be further diluted if signal response is too fast.
NOTE: Due to the kinetics of the detection reaction, signal is most intense immediately following LumiGLO® incubation and declines over the following 2 hr.
LumiGLO® is a registered trademark of Kirkegaard & Perry Laboratories.
posted June 2020
Protocol Id: 2046
The Ras superfamily of small GTP-binding proteins (G proteins) comprise a large class of proteins (over 150 members) that can be classified into at least five families based on their sequence and functional similarities: Ras, Rho, Rab, Arf, and Ran (1-3). These small G proteins have both GDP/GTP-binding and GTPase activities and function as binary switches in diverse cellular and developmental events that include cell cycle progression, cell survival, actin cytoskeletal organization, cell polarity and movement, and vesicular and nuclear transport (1). An upstream signal stimulates the dissociation of GDP from the GDP-bound form (inactive), which leads to the binding of GTP and formation of the GTP-bound form (active). The activated G protein then goes through a conformational change in its downstream effector-binding region, leading to the binding and regulation of downstream effectors. This activation can be switched off by the intrinsic GTPase activity, which hydrolyzes GTP to GDP and releases the downstream effectors. These intrinsic guanine nucleotide exchange and GTP hydrolysis activities of Ras superfamily proteins are also regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that promote formation of the active GTP-bound form and GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) that return the GTPase to its GDP-bound inactive form (4).
Rac and Cdc42 are members of the Rho-GTPase family. In mammals, Rac exists as three isoforms, Rac1, Rac2, and Rac3, which are highly similar in sequence. Rac1 and Cdc42, the most widely studied of this group, are ubiquitously expressed. Rac2 is expressed in cells of hematopoietic origin, and Rac3, while highly expressed in brain, is also found in many other tissues. Rac and Cdc42 play key signaling roles in cytoskeletal reorganization, membrane trafficking, transcriptional regulation, cell growth, and development (5). GTP binding stimulates the activity of Rac/Cdc42, and the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP through the protein's intrinsic GTPase activity, rendering it inactive. GTP hydrolysis is aided by GTPase activating proteins (GAPs), while exchange of GDP for GTP is facilitated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Another level of regulation is achieved through the binding of RhoGDI, a guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor, which retains Rho family GTPases, including Rac and Cdc42, in their inactive GDP-bound state (6,7).
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