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76437
CD68 (D4B9C) XP® Rabbit mAb
Primary Antibodies
Monoclonal Antibody

CD68 (D4B9C) XP® Rabbit mAb #76437

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Citations (6)
Filter:
  1. IHC
  2. IF
  3. F
Immunohistochemistry Image 1 - CD68 (D4B9C) XP® Rabbit mAb

Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human tonsil using CD68 (D4B9C) XP® Rabbit mAb.

Immunohistochemistry Image 2 - CD68 (D4B9C) XP® Rabbit mAb

Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human serous papillary carcinoma of the ovary using CD68 (D4B9C) XP® Rabbit mAb.

Immunohistochemistry Image 3 - CD68 (D4B9C) XP® Rabbit mAb

Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human lung carcinoma using CD68 (D4B9C) XP® Rabbit mAb.

Immunohistochemistry Image 4 - CD68 (D4B9C) XP® Rabbit mAb

Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded THP-1 (left) and Jurkat (right) cell pellets using CD68 (D4B9C) XP® Rabbit mAb.

Immunohistochemistry Image 5 - CD68 (D4B9C) XP® Rabbit mAb

Multiplex immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human lung adenocarcinoma using CD68 (D4B9C) XP® rabbit mAb (red), PD-1 (EH33) mouse mAb #43248 (green), CD8α (C8/144B) mouse mAb #70306 (magenta), Pan-keratin (C11) mouse mAb #4545 (cyan), LAG3 (D2G4O™) XP® rabbit mAb #15372 (orange), and TIM-3 (D5D5R™) XP® rabbit mAb #45208 (yellow).

Immunohistochemistry Image 6 - CD68 (D4B9C) XP® Rabbit mAb

Multiplex immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human ovarian carcinoma using CD68 (D4B9C) XP® rabbit mAb (orange), PD-L1 (E1L3N®) XP® rabbit mAb #13684 (red), PD-L2 (D7U8C™) XP® rabbit mAb (magenta) #82723, Arginase-1 (D4E3M™) XP® rabbit mAb #93668 (green), IDO (D5J4E™) rabbit mAb #86630 (yellow), and Pan-keratin (C11) mouse mAb #4545 (cyan).

Immunofluorescence Image 1 - CD68 (D4B9C) XP® Rabbit mAb

Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of THP-1 (left) and Jurkat (right) cells using CD68 (D4B9C) XP® Rabbit mAb (green). Blue pseudocolor = DRAQ5® #4084 (fluorescent DNA dye). Projected images from a z-stack series are shown.

Flow Cytometry Image 1 - CD68 (D4B9C) XP® Rabbit mAb

Flow cytometric analysis of fixed and permeabilized Jurkat cells (blue, negative) and THP-1 cells (green, positive) using CD68 (D4B9C) Rabbit mAb (solid lines) or a concentration-matched Rabbit (DA1E) mAb IgG XP® Isotype Control #3900 (dashed lines). Anti-rabbit IgG (H+L), F(ab')2 Fragment (Alexa Fluor® 488 Conjugate) #4412 was used as a secondary antibody.

Flow Cytometry Image 2 - CD68 (D4B9C) XP® Rabbit mAb

Flow cytometric analysis of live human peripheral blood mononuclear cells co-stained with anti-human CD14 using CD68 (D4B9C) XP® Rabbit mAb (right) compared to a concentration-matched Rabbit (DA1E) mAb IgG XP® Isotype Control #3900 (left). Anti-rabbit IgG (H+L), F(ab')2 Fragment (Alexa Fluor® 488 Conjugate) #4412 was used as a secondary antibody.

Flow Cytometry Image 3 - CD68 (D4B9C) XP® Rabbit mAb

Flow cytometric analysis of fixed and permeabilized human peripheral blood mononuclear cells co-stained with anti-human CD14 using CD68 (D4B9C) XP® Rabbit mAb (right) compared to a concentration-matched Rabbit (DA1E) mAb IgG XP® Isotype Control #3900 (left). Anti-rabbit IgG (H+L), F(ab')2 Fragment (Alexa Fluor® 488 Conjugate) #4412 was used as a secondary antibody.

To Purchase # 76437S
Product # Size Price
76437T
20 µl $ 118
76437S
100 µl $ 277

Supporting Data

REACTIVITY H
SENSITIVITY Endogenous
MW (kDa)
Source/Isotype Rabbit IgG

Application Key:

  • W-Western
  • IP-Immunoprecipitation
  • IHC-Immunohistochemistry
  • ChIP-Chromatin Immunoprecipitation
  • IF-Immunofluorescence
  • F-Flow Cytometry
  • E-P-ELISA-Peptide

Species Cross-Reactivity Key:

  • H-Human
  • M-Mouse
  • R-Rat
  • Hm-Hamster
  • Mk-Monkey
  • Mi-Mink
  • C-Chicken
  • Dm-D. melanogaster
  • X-Xenopus
  • Z-Zebrafish
  • B-Bovine
  • Dg-Dog
  • Pg-Pig
  • Sc-S. cerevisiae
  • Ce-C. elegans
  • Hr-Horse
  • All-All Species Expected

Product Usage Information

Application Dilution
Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin) 1:400
Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry) 1:800
Flow Cytometry 1:800

Storage

Supplied in 10 mM sodium HEPES (pH 7.5), 150 mM NaCl, 100 µg/ml BSA, 50% glycerol and less than 0.02% sodium azide. Store at –20°C. Do not aliquot the antibody.

Protocol

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Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin)

A. Solutions and Reagents

NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalent grade water.

  1. Xylene.
  2. Ethanol, anhydrous denatured, histological grade (100% and 95%).
  3. Deionized water (dH2O).
  4. Hematoxylin (optional).
  5. Wash Buffer:
    1. 1X Tris Buffered Saline with Tween® 20 (TBST): To prepare 1L 1X TBST add 100 ml 10X Tris Buffered Saline with Tween® 20 (#9997) to 900 ml dH20, mix.
  6. SignalStain® Antibody Diluent (#8112).
  7. 1X Citrate Unmasking Solution: To prepare 250 mL of 1X citrate unmasking solution, dilute 25 ml of SignalStain® Citrate Unmasking Solution (10X) (#14746) with 225 mL of dH2O.
  8. 3% Hydrogen Peroxide: To prepare 100 ml, add 10 ml 30% H2O2 to 90 ml dH2O.
  9. Blocking Solution: TBST/5% Normal Goat Serum or 1X Animal-Free Blocking Solution.
    1. TBST/5% Normal Goat Serum: to 5 ml 1X TBST, add 250 µl Normal Goat Serum (#5425).
    2. 1X Animal-Free Blocking Solution: to 4 mL of dH2O add 1 ml of Animal-Free Blocking Solution (5X) (#15019).
  10. Detection System: SignalStain® Boost IHC Detection Reagents (HRP, Rabbit #8114).
  11. Substrate: SignalStain® DAB Substrate Kit (#8059).
  12. Hematoxylin: Hematoxylin (#14166).
  13. Mounting Medium: SignalStain® Mounting Medium (#14177).

B. Deparaffinization/Rehydration

NOTE: Do not allow slides to dry at any time during this procedure.

  1. Deparaffinize/hydrate sections:
    1. Incubate sections in three washes of xylene for 5 min each.
    2. Incubate sections in two washes of 100% ethanol for 10 min each.
    3. Incubate sections in two washes of 95% ethanol for 10 min each.
  2. Wash sections two times in dH2O for 5 min each.

C. Antigen Unmasking

For Citrate: Heat slides in a microwave submersed in 1X citrate unmasking solution until boiling is initiated; follow with 10 min at a sub-boiling temperature (95°-98°C). Cool slides on bench top for 30 min.

D. Staining

  1. Wash sections in dH2O three times for 5 min each.
  2. Incubate sections in 3% hydrogen peroxide for 10 min.
  3. Wash sections in dH2O two times for 5 min each.
  4. Wash sections in wash buffer for 5 min.
  5. Block each section with 100–400 µl of preferred blocking solution for 1 hr at room temperature.
  6. Remove blocking solution and add 100–400 µl primary antibody diluted in SignalStain® Antibody Diluent (#8112) to each section. Incubate overnight at 4°C.
  7. Equilibrate SignalStain® Boost Detection Reagent (HRP, Rabbit #8114) to room temperature.
  8. Remove antibody solution and wash sections with wash buffer three times for 5 min each.
  9. Cover section with 1–3 drops SignalStain® Boost Detection Reagent (HRP, Rabbit #8114) as needed. Incubate in a humidified chamber for 30 min at room temperature.
  10. Wash sections three times with wash buffer for 5 min each.
  11. Add 1 drop (30 µl) SignalStain® DAB Chromogen Concentrate to 1 ml SignalStain® DAB Diluent and mix well before use.
  12. Apply 100–400 µl SignalStain® DAB to each section and monitor closely. 1–10 min generally provides an acceptable staining intensity.
  13. Immerse slides in dH2O.
  14. If desired, counterstain sections with hematoxylin (#14166).
  15. Wash sections in dH2O two times for 5 min each.
  16. Dehydrate sections:
    1. Incubate sections in 95% ethanol two times for 10 sec each.
    2. Repeat in 100% ethanol, incubating sections two times for 10 sec each.
    3. Repeat in xylene, incubating sections two times for 10 sec each.
  17. Mount sections with coverslips and mounting medium (#14177).

DETECTION REAGENT/SUBSTRATE COMPATIBILITY
RECOMMENDED
DETECTION REAGENTS
SignalStain® Boost IHC Detection Reagent (HRP, Rabbit) #8114 SignalStain® Boost IHC Detection Reagent (AP, Rabbit) #18653
COMPATIBLE
CHROMOGEN
SignalStain® DAB Substrate Kit #8059 SignalStain® Vibrant Red Alkaline Phosphatase Substrate Kit #76713
SignalStain® Vivid Purple Peroxidase Substrate Kit #96632  

NOTE: Use of detection reagents other than those specified in this protocol may require further optimization of the primary antibody to account for the different sensitivities of the detection reagents.


posted February 2010

revised June 2020

Protocol Id: 283

Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

A. Solutions and Reagents

NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalently purified water.

  1. 20X Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS): (9808) To prepare 1L 1X PBS: add 50 ml 20X PBS to 950 ml dH2O, mix. Adjust pH to 8.0.
  2. Formaldehyde: 16%, methanol free, Polysciences, Inc. (cat# 18814), use fresh and store opened vials at 4°C in dark, dilute in 1X PBS for use.
  3. Methanol, 100%
  4. Blocking Buffer (1X PBS / 5% normal serum / 0.3% Triton™ X-100): To prepare 10 ml, add 0.5 ml normal serum from the same species as the secondary antibody (e.g., Normal Goat Serum (#5425)) and 0.5 mL 20X PBS to 9.0 mL dH2O, mix well. While stirring, add 30 µl Triton™ X-100.
  5. Antibody Dilution Buffer (1X PBS / 1% BSA / 0.3% Triton X-100): To prepare 10 ml, add 30 µl Triton™ X-100 to 10 ml 1X PBS. Mix well then add 0.1 g BSA (9998), mix.
  6. Recommended Fluorochrome-conjugated Anti-Rabbit secondary antibodies:

  7. Prolong® Gold AntiFade Reagent (#9071), Prolong® Gold AntiFade Reagent with DAPI (#8961).

B. Specimen Preparation - Cultured Cell Lines (IF-IC)

NOTE: Cells should be grown, treated, fixed and stained directly in multiwell plates, chamber slides or on coverslips.

  1. Aspirate liquid, then cover cells to a depth of 2–3 mm with 4% formaldehyde in 1X PBS.
    NOTE: Formaldehyde is toxic, use only in fume hood.
  2. Allow cells to fix for 15 minutes at room temperature.
  3. Aspirate fixative, rinse three times in 1X PBS for 5 minutes each.
  4. Proceed with Immunostaining (Section C).

C. Immunostaining

NOTE: All subsequent incubations should be carried out at room temperature unless otherwise noted in a humid light-tight box or covered dish/plate to prevent drying and fluorochrome fading.

  1. Methanol Permeabilization Step: Cover cells with ice-cold 100% methanol (use enough to cover completely to a depth of 3–5 mm, DO NOT LET DRY), incubate in methanol for 10 minutes at –20°C, rinse in 1X PBS for 5 minutes.
  2. Block specimen in Blocking Buffer for 60 minutes.
  3. While blocking, prepare primary antibody by diluting as indicated on product webpage in Antibody Dilution Buffer.
  4. Aspirate blocking solution, apply diluted primary antibody.
  5. Incubate overnight at 4°C.
  6. Rinse three times in 1X PBS for 5 minutes each.
  7. Incubate specimen in fluorochrome-conjugated secondary antibody diluted in Antibody Dilution Buffer for 1–2 hours at room temperature in dark.
  8. Rinse in 1X PBS as in step 6.
  9. Coverslip slides with Prolong® Gold Antifade Reagent (#9071), Prolong® Gold AntiFade Reagent with DAPI (#8961).
  10. For best results examine specimens immediately using appropriate excitation wavelength. For long term storage, store slides flat at 4°C protected from light.

posted November 2006

revised December 2010

Protocol Id: 32

Flow Cytometry, Live Cell Protocol for Unconjugated Rabbit Antibodies

A. Solutions and Reagents

NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalent grade water.

  1. 1X Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS): To prepare 1 L 1X PBS: add 100 ml 10X PBS (#12528) to 900 ml water mix.
  2. Antibody Dilution Buffer: Purchase ready-to-use Flow Cytometry Antibody Dilution Buffer (#13616), or prepare a 0.5% BSA PBS buffer by dissolving 0.5 g Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) (#9998) in 100 ml 1X PBS. Store at 4°C.
  3. Recommended Anti-Rabbit secondary antibodies::
    • Anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L), F(ab')2 Fragment (Alexa Fluor® 488 Conjugate) #4412
    • Anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L), F(ab')2 Fragment (Alexa Fluor® 594 Conjugate) #8889
    • Anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L), F(ab')2 Fragment (Alexa Fluor® 647 Conjugate) #4414
    • Anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L), F(ab')2 Fragment (PE Conjugate) #79408

NOTE: When including fluorescent cellular dyes in your experiment (including viability dyes, DNA dyes, etc.), please refer to the dye product page for the recommended protocol. Visit www.cellsignal.com for a full listing of cellular dyes validated for use in flow cytometry.

B. Immunostaining

NOTE: Count cells using a hemocytometer or alternative method.

NOTE: If using whole blood, lyse red blood cells and wash by centrifugation prior to Immunostaining.

NOTE: Optimal centrifugation conditions will vary depending upon cell type and reagent volume. Generally, 150-300g for 1-5 minutes will be sufficient to pellet the cells.

  1. Aliquot desired number of cells into tubes or wells. (Generally, 5x105 to 1x106 cells per assay.)
  2. Pellet cells by centrifugation and remove supernatant.
  3. Resuspend cells in 100 µl of diluted primary antibody, prepared in Antibody Dilution Buffer at a recommended dilution or as determined via titration.
  4. Incubate for 30 min to 1 hr on ice. Protect from light.
  5. Wash by centrifugation in Antibody Dilution Buffer or 1X PBS. Discard supernatant. Repeat.
  6. Resuspend cells in 100 µl of diluted fluorochrome-conjugated secondary antibody (prepared in Antibody Dilution Buffer at the recommended dilution).
  7. Incubate for 30 min on ice. Protect from light.
  8. Wash by centrifugation in Antibody Dilution Buffer. Discard supernatant. Repeat.
  9. Resuspend cells in 200-500 µl of Antibody Dilution Buffer and analyze on flow cytometer.

revised June 2020

Protocol Id: 1865

Specificity / Sensitivity

CD68 (D4B9C) XP® Rabbit mAb recognizes endogenous levels of total CD68 protein.

Species Reactivity:

Human

Source / Purification

Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with recombinant human CD68 protein.

Background

CD68 (macrosialin) is a heavily glycosylated transmembrane protein that is expressed by and commonly used as a marker for monocytes and macrophages (1, 2). It is found on the plasma membrane, as well as endosomal and lysosomal membranes (1-3). It is proposed to bind OxLDL and has been observed as a homodimer (3, 4).

  1. Rabinowitz, S.S. and Gordon, S. (1991) J Exp Med 174, 827-36.
  2. Holness, C.L. and Simmons, D.L. (1993) Blood 81, 1607-13.
  3. Ramprasad, M.P. et al. (1995) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92, 9580-4.
  4. Ramprasad, M.P. et al. (1996) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93, 14833-8.

Pathways & Proteins

Explore pathways + proteins related to this product.

For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.

Cell Signaling Technology is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
SignalStain is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
XP is a registered trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
Alexa Fluor is a registered trademark of Life Technologies Corporation.
DRAQ5 is a registered trademark of Biostatus Limited.