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PhosphoSitePlus® Resource

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REACTIVITY SENSITIVITY MW (kDa) Isotype
H Endogenous 40 Rabbit IgG
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Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of HT-29 (left) and HeLa (right) cells using EpCAM (D4K8R) XP® Rabbit mAb (green). Actin filaments were labeled with DyLight™ 554 Phalloidin #13054 (red). Blue pseudocolor = DRAQ5® #4084 (fluorescent DNA dye). Note that EpCAM (D4K8R) XP® Rabbit mAb has been shown to detect its target protein on live, fixed, and fixed/permeabilized cells.

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Flow Cytometry

Flow cytometric analysis of fixed and unpermeabilized (left) and live (right) HeLa cells (blue), HT-29 cells (red), and MCF7 cells (green) using EpCAM (D4K8R) XP® Rabbit mAb. Anti-rabbit IgG (H+L), F(ab')2 Fragment (Alexa Fluor® 488 Conjugate) #4412 was used as a secondary antibody.

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Immunoprecipitation for Native Proteins

This protocol is intended for immunoprecipitation of native proteins for analysis by western immunoblot or kinase activity utilizing magnetic separation.

A. Solutions and Reagents

NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalent grade water.

  1. 20X Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS): (#9808) To prepare 1 L of 1X PBS, add 50 ml 20X PBS to 950 ml dH2O, mix.
  2. 10X Cell Lysis Buffer: (#9803) To prepare 10 ml of 1X cell lysis buffer, add 1 ml cell lysis buffer to 9 ml dH2O, mix.

    NOTE: Add 1 mM PMSF (#8553) immediately prior to use.

  3. 3X SDS Sample Buffer: Blue Loading Pack (#7722) or Red Loading Pack (#7723) Prepare fresh 3X reducing loading buffer by adding 1/10 volume 30X DTT to 1 volume of 3X SDS loading buffer.
  4. Protein A Magnetic Beads: Use Protein A (#73778) for rabbit IgG immunoprecipitation.
  5. Magnetic Separation Rack: (#7017) or (#14654).
  6. 10X Kinase Buffer (for kinase assays): (#9802) To Prepare 1 ml of 1X kinase buffer, add 100 µl 10X kinase buffer to 900 µl dH2O, mix.
  7. ATP (10 mM) (for kinase assays): (#9804) To prepare 0.5 ml of ATP (200 µM), add 10 µl ATP (10 mM) to 490 µl 1X kinase buffer.

B. Preparing Cell Lysates

  1. Aspirate media. Treat cells by adding fresh media containing regulator for desired time.
  2. To harvest cells under nondenaturing conditions, remove media and rinse cells once with ice-cold 1X PBS.
  3. Remove PBS and add 0.5 ml ice-cold 1X cell lysis buffer to each plate (10 cm) and incubate on ice for 5 min.
  4. Scrape cells off the plate and transfer to microcentrifuge tubes. Keep on ice.
  5. Sonicate on ice three times for 5 sec each.
  6. Microcentrifuge for 10 min at 4°C, 14,000 x g and transfer the supernatant to a new tube. The supernatant is the cell lysate. If necessary, lysate can be stored at -80°C.

C. Immunoprecipitation

Cell Lysate Pre-Clearing (Optional)

A cell lysate pre-clearing step is highly recommended to reduce non-specific protein binding to the Protein A Magnetic beads. Pre-clear enough lysate for test samples and isotype controls.

  1. Briefly vortex the stock tube to resuspend the magnetic beads.

    IMPORTANT: Pre-wash #73778 magnetic beads just prior to use:

  2. Transfer 20 μl of bead slurry to a clean tube. Place the tube in a magnetic separation rack for 10-15 seconds.

    Carefully remove the buffer once the solution is clear. Add 500 μl of 1X cell lysis buffer to the magnetic bead pellet, briefly vortex to wash the beads. Place tube back in magnetic separation rack. Remove buffer once solution is clear. Repeat washing step once more.

  3. Add 200 μl cell lysate to 20 μl of pre-washed magnetic beads.

    IMPORTANT: The optimal lysate concentration will depend on the expression level of the protein of interest. A starting concentration between 250 μg/ml-1.0 mg/ml is recommended.

  4. Incubate with rotation for 20 minutes at room temperature.
  5. Separate the beads from the lysate using a magnetic separation rack, transfer the pre-cleared lysate to a clean tube, and discard the magnetic bead pellet.
  6. Proceed to immunoprecipitation section.

Immunoprecipitation

IMPORTANT: Appropriate isotype controls are highly recommended in order to show specific binding in your primary antibody immunoprecipitation. Use Normal Rabbit IgG #2729 for rabbit polyclonal primary antibodies, Rabbit (DA1E) mAb IgG XP® Isotype Control #3900 for rabbit monoclonal primary antibodies, and Mouse (G3A1) mAb IgG1 Isotype Control #5415 for mouse monoclonal primary antibodies. Isotype controls should be concentration matched and run alongside the primary antibody samples

  1. Add primary antibody (at the appropriate dilution as recommended in the product datasheet) to 200 µl cell lysate. Incubate with rotation overnight at 4°C. to form the immunocomplex.
  2. Pre-wash magnetic beads (see Cell Lysate Pre-Clearing section, steps 1 and 2).
  3. Transfer the lysate and antibody (immunocomplex) solution to the tube containing the pre-washed magnetic bead pellet.
  4. Incubate with rotation for 20 min at room temperature.
  5. Pellet beads using magnetic separation rack. Wash pellets five times with 500 μl of 1X cell lysis buffer. Keep on ice between washes.
  6. Proceed to analyze by western immunoblotting or kinase activity (section D).

D. Sample Analysis

Proceed to one of the following specific set of steps.

For Analysis by Western Immunoblotting

  1. Resuspend the pellet with 20-40 µl 3X SDS sample buffer, briefly vortex to mix, and briefly microcentrifuge to pellet the sample.
  2. Heat the sample to 95-100°C for 5 min.
  3. Pellet beads using magnetic separation rack. Transfer the supernatant to a new tube. The supernatant is the sample.
  4. Analyze sample by western blot (see Western Immunoblotting Protocol).

NOTE: To minimize masking caused by denatured IgG heavy chains (~50 kDa), we recommend using Mouse Anti-Rabbit IgG (Light-Chain Specific) (D4W3E) mAb (#45262) or Mouse Anti-Rabbit IgG (Conformation Specific) (L27A9) mAb (#3678) (or HRP conjugate #5127). To minimize masking caused by denatured IgG light chains (~25 kDa), we recommend using Mouse Anti-Rabbit IgG (Conformation Specific) (L27A9) mAb (#3678) (or HRP conjugate #5127).

For Analysis by Kinase Assay

  1. Wash pellet twice with 500 µl 1X kinase buffer. Keep on ice.
  2. Suspend pellet in 40 µl 1X kinase buffer supplemented with 200 µM ATP and appropriate substrate.
  3. Incubate for 30 min at 30°C.
  4. Terminate reaction with 20 µl 3X SDS sample buffer. Vortex, then microcentrifuge for 30 sec.
  5. Transfer supernatant containing phosphorylated substrate to another tube.
  6. Heat the sample to 95-100°C for 2-5 min and microcentrifuge for 1 min at 14,000 x g.
  7. Load the sample (15-30 µl) on SDS-PAGE gel.

posted December 2008

revised October 2017

Protocol Id: 410
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Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

A. Solutions and Reagents

Achieve higher quality immunofluorescent images using the efficient and cost-effective, pre-made reagents in our #12727 Immunofluorescence Application Solutions Kit

NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalent grade water.

  1. 20X Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS): (9808) To prepare 1L 1X PBS: add 50 ml 20X PBS to 950 ml dH2O, mix. Adjust pH to 8.0.
  2. Formaldehyde: 16%, methanol free, Polysciences, Inc. (cat# 18814), use fresh and store opened vials at 4°C in dark, dilute in 1X PBS for use.
  3. Blocking Buffer (1X PBS / 5% normal serum / 0.3% Triton™ X-100): To prepare 10 ml, add 0.5 ml normal serum from the same species as the secondary antibody (e.g., Normal Goat Serum (#5425)) and 0.5 mL 20X PBS to 9.0 mL dH2O, mix well. While stirring, add 30 µl Triton™ X-100.
  4. Antibody Dilution Buffer (1X PBS / 1% BSA / 0.3% Triton X-100): To prepare 10 ml, add 30 µl Triton™ X-100 to 10 ml 1X PBS. Mix well then add 0.1 g BSA (9998), mix.
  5. Recommended Fluorochrome-conjugated Anti-Rabbit secondary antibodies:

  6. Prolong® Gold AntiFade Reagent (#9071), Prolong® Gold AntiFade Reagent with DAPI (#8961).

B. Specimen Preparation - Cultured Cell Lines (IF-IC)

NOTE: Cells should be grown, treated, fixed and stained directly in multi-well plates, chamber slides or on coverslips.

  1. Aspirate liquid, then cover cells to a depth of 2–3 mm with 4% formaldehyde diluted in 1X PBS.

    NOTE: Formaldehyde is toxic, use only in a fume hood.

  2. Allow cells to fix for 15 min at room temperature.
  3. Aspirate fixative, rinse three times in 1X PBS for 5 min each.
  4. Proceed with Immunostaining (Section C).

C. Immunostaining

NOTE: All subsequent incubations should be carried out at room temperature unless otherwise noted in a humid light-tight box or covered dish/plate to prevent drying and fluorochrome fading.

  1. Block specimen in Blocking Buffer for 60 min.
  2. While blocking, prepare primary antibody by diluting as indicated on datasheet in Antibody Dilution Buffer.
  3. Aspirate blocking solution, apply diluted primary antibody.
  4. Incubate overnight at 4°C.
  5. Rinse three times in 1X PBS for 5 min each.
  6. Incubate specimen in fluorochrome-conjugated secondary antibody diluted in Antibody Dilution Buffer for 1–2 hr at room temperature in the dark.
  7. Rinse three times in 1X PBS for 5 min each.
  8. Coverslip slides with Prolong® Gold Antifade Reagent (#9071) or Prolong® Gold Antifade Reagent with DAPI (#8961).
  9. For best results, allow mountant to cure overnight at room temperature. For long-term storage, store slides flat at 4°C protected from light.

posted November 2006

revised November 2013

Protocol Id: 24
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Flow Cytometry, Extracellular Epitope Protocol for Rabbit Antibodies

A. Solutions and Reagents

NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalent grade water.

  1. 20X Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS): (#9808) To prepare 1 L 1X PBS: add 50 ml 20X PBS to 950 ml dH2O, mix.
  2. Formaldehyde (methanol free).
  3. Incubation Buffer: Dissolve 0.5 g bovine serum albumin (BSA) (#9998) in 100 ml 1X PBS. Store at 4°C.
  4. Recommended Anti-Rabbit secondary antibodies:

B. Fixation

NOTE: If live cell staining is desired, proceed to Section C.

  1. Collect cells by centrifugation and aspirate supernatant.
  2. Resuspend cells briefly in 0.5-1 ml PBS. Add formaldehyde to obtain a final concentration of 4% formaldehyde.
  3. Fix for 15 minutes at room temperature.
  4. Wash by centrifugation with excess 1X PBS. Discard supernatant in appropriate waste container. Resuspend cells in 1X PBS.
  5. Proceed with staining or store cells at +4°C in PBS with 0.1% sodium azide.

C. Immunostaining

NOTE: Count cells using a hemocytometer or alternative method.

  1. Aliquot desired number of cells into tubes or wells.
  2. If necessary, centrifuge to remove excess PBS.
  3. Resuspend cells in 100 µl of diluted primary antibody (prepared in incubation buffer at the recommended dilution).
  4. Incubate for 30-60 minutes at room temperature.
  5. Wash by centrifugation in incubation buffer. Discard supernatant. Repeat.
  6. Resuspend cells in fluorochrome-conjugated secondary antibody at the recommended dilution.
  7. Incubate for 30 minutes at room temperature.
  8. Wash by centrifugation in incubation buffer. Discard supernatant. Repeat.
  9. Resuspend cells in 1X PBS and analyze on flow cytometer; alternatively, for DNA staining, proceed to Section D.

D. Optional DNA Dye

  1. Resuspend cells in 0.5 ml of DNA dye (e.g. Propidium Iodide (PI)/RNase Staining Solution #4087).
  2. Incubate for at least 5 min at room temperature.
  3. Analyze cells in DNA staining solution on flow cytometer.

posted January 2009

revised June 2017

Protocol Id: 133

Product Usage Information

Application Dilutions
Immunoprecipitation 1:50
Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry) 1:100
Flow Cytometry 1:50

Storage: Supplied in 10 mM sodium HEPES (pH 7.5), 150 mM NaCl, 100 µg/ml BSA, 50% glycerol and less than 0.02% sodium azide. Store at –20°C. Do not aliquot the antibody.

Specificity / Sensitivity

EpCAM (D4K8R) XP® Rabbit mAb recognizes endogenous levels of total EpCAM protein.


Species Reactivity: Human

Source / Purification

Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with mammalian cells expressing full length EpCAM protein.

Epithelial cell adhesion and activating molecule (EpCAM/CD326) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that mediates Ca2+-independent, homophilic adhesions on the basolateral surface of most epithelial cells. EpCAM is not expressed in adult squamous epithelium, but it is highly expressed in adeno and squamous cell carcinomas (1). Research studies identified EpCAM as one of the first tumor-associated antigens, and it has long been a marker of epithelial and tumor tissue. Investigators have shown that EpCAM is highly expressed in cancer cells (reviewed in 2,3).


1.  Went, P.T. et al. (2004) Hum Pathol 35, 122-8.

2.  Baeuerle, P.A. and Gires, O. (2007) Br J Cancer 96, 417-23.

3.  Armstrong, A. and Eck, S.L. (2003) Cancer Biol Ther 2, 320-6.


Entrez-Gene Id 4072
Swiss-Prot Acc. P16422


For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.
Cell Signaling Technology is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
XP is a registered trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
DRAQ5 is a registered trademark of Biostatus Limited.
DyLight is a trademark of Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc. and its subsidiaries.
This product is provided under an intellectual property license from Life Technologies Corporation. The transfer of this product is contingent on the buyer using the purchased product solely in research, including use with HCS or other automated imaging applications but excluding use in combination with DNA microarrays. The buyer must not sell or otherwise transfer this product or its components for (a) diagnostic, therapeutic or prophylactic purposes; (b) testing, analysis or screening services, or information in return for compensation on a per-test basis; (c) manufacturing or quality assurance or quality control, or (d) resale, whether or not resold for use in research. For information on purchasing a license to this product for purposes other than as described above, contact Life Technologies Corporation, 5791 Van Allen Way, Carlsbad, CA 92008 USA or outlicensing@lifetech.com.

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EpCAM (D4K8R) XP® Rabbit mAb