|REACTIVITY||H M R Mk Z|
For western blots, incubate membrane with diluted primary antibody in 5% w/v nonfat dry milk, 1X TBS, 0.1% Tween® 20 at 4°C with gentle shaking, overnight.
NOTE: Please refer to primary antibody product webpage for recommended antibody dilution.
From sample preparation to detection, the reagents you need for your Western Blot are now in one convenient kit: #12957 Western Blotting Application Solutions Kit
NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalent grade water.
Load 20 µl onto SDS-PAGE gel (10 cm x 10 cm).
NOTE: Volumes are for 10 cm x 10 cm (100 cm2) of membrane; for different sized membranes, adjust volumes accordingly.
* Avoid repeated exposure to skin.
posted June 2005
revised June 2020
Protocol Id: 19
Human, Mouse, Rat, Monkey, Zebrafish
Xenopus, Bovine, Horse
Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to the carboxy-terminal residues of histone H2B.
The nucleosome, made up of four core histone proteins (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4), is the primary building block of chromatin. Originally thought to function as a static scaffold for DNA packaging, histones have now been shown to be dynamic proteins, undergoing multiple types of post-translational modifications, including acetylation, phosphorylation, methylation, and ubiquitination (1,2). The p300/CBP histone acetyltransferases acetylate multiple lysine residues in the amino terminal tail of histone H2B (Lys5, 12, 15, and 20) at gene promoters during transcriptional activation (1-3). Hyper-acetylation of the histone tails neutralizes the positive charge of these domains and is believed to weaken histone-DNA and nucleosome-nucleosome interactions, thereby destabilizing chromatin structure and increasing the access of DNA to various DNA-binding proteins (4,5). In addition, acetylation of specific lysine residues creates docking sites that facilitate recruitment of many transcription and chromatin regulatory proteins that contain a bromodomain, which binds to acetylated lysine residues (6). Histone H2B is mono-ubiquitinated at Lys120 during transcriptional activation by the RAD6 E2 protein in conjunction with the BRE1A/BRE1B E3 ligase (also known as RNF20/RNF40) (7). Mono-ubiquitinated histone H2B Lys120 is associated with the transcribed region of active genes and stimulates transcriptional elongation by facilitating FACT-dependent chromatin remodeling (7-9). In addition, it is essential for subsequent methylation of histone H3 Lys4 and Lys79, two additional histone modifications that regulate transcriptional initiation and elongation (10). In response to metabolic stress, AMPK is recruited to responsive genes and phosphorylates histone H2B at Lys36, both at promoters and in transcribed regions of genes, and may regulate transcriptional elongation (11). In response to multiple apoptotic stimuli, histone H2B is phosphorylated at Ser14 by the Mst1 kinase (12). Upon induction of apoptosis, Mst1 is cleaved and activated by caspase-3, leading to global phosphorylation of histone H2B during chromatin condensation. Interestingly, histone H2B is rapidly phosphorylated at irradiation-induced DNA damage foci in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (13). In this case, phosphorylation at Ser14 is rapid, depends on prior phosphorylation of H2AX Ser139, and occurs in the absence of apoptosis, suggesting that Ser14 phosphorylation may have distinct roles in DNA-damage repair and apoptosis.
Except as otherwise expressly agreed in a writing signed by a legally authorized representative of CST, the following terms apply to Products provided by CST, its affiliates or its distributors. Any Customer's terms and conditions that are in addition to, or different from, those contained herein, unless separately accepted in writing by a legally authorized representative of CST, are rejected and are of no force or effect.
Products are labeled with For Research Use Only or a similar labeling statement and have not been approved, cleared, or licensed by the FDA or other regulatory foreign or domestic entity, for any purpose. Customer shall not use any Product for any diagnostic or therapeutic purpose, or otherwise in any manner that conflicts with its labeling statement. Products sold or licensed by CST are provided for Customer as the end-user and solely for research and development uses. Any use of Product for diagnostic, prophylactic or therapeutic purposes, or any purchase of Product for resale (alone or as a component) or other commercial purpose, requires a separate license from CST. Customer shall (a) not sell, license, loan, donate or otherwise transfer or make available any Product to any third party, whether alone or in combination with other materials, or use the Products to manufacture any commercial products, (b) not copy, modify, reverse engineer, decompile, disassemble or otherwise attempt to discover the underlying structure or technology of the Products, or use the Products for the purpose of developing any products or services that would compete with CST products or services, (c) not alter or remove from the Products any trademarks, trade names, logos, patent or copyright notices or markings, (d) use the Products solely in accordance with CST Product Terms of Sale and any applicable documentation, and (e) comply with any license, terms of service or similar agreement with respect to any third party products or services used by Customer in connection with the Products.