|Tox/Tox2 (E6G5O) Rabbit mAb 36778||20 µl||
||H M R||60-80||Rabbit IgG|
|TCF1/TCF7 (C63D9) Rabbit mAb 2203||20 µl||
||H M||48, 50||Rabbit IgG|
|EOMES (D8D1R) Rabbit mAb 81493||20 µl||
||H||75, 85||Rabbit IgG|
|PD-1 (Intracellular Domain) (D4W2J) XP® Rabbit mAb 86163||20 µl||
|CTLA-4 (E1V6T) Rabbit mAb 96399||20 µl||
|TIGIT (E5Y1W) XP® Rabbit mAb 99567||20 µl||
||H||18, 30-40||Rabbit IgG|
|LAG3 (D2G4O™) XP® Rabbit mAb 15372||20 µl||
|TIM-3 (D5D5R™) XP® Rabbit mAb 45208||20 µl||
|2B4/SLAMF4/CD244 (D5J9D) Rabbit mAb 54560||20 µl||
||H M||70-120||Rabbit IgG|
|Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked Antibody 7074||100 µl||
Monoclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Gln435 of human Tox protein, Pro96 of human TCF1/TCF7 protein, Pro180 of human EOMES protein, Ala274 of human PD-1 protein, Leu95 of human CTLA-4 protein, and Asp367 of human 2B4/SLAMF4/CD244 protein. Monoclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a recombinant protein specific to the carboxy terminus of human TIGIT protein, the extracellular domain of human TIM-3 protein, and the amino terminus of human LAG3 protein.
Tox, TCF1/TCF7, and EOMES play key roles in T cell development. Tox is also induced by high antigen stimulation during chronic viral infection or cancer, regulating T cell persistence and exhaustion. TCF1/TCF7 preserves the effector function of exhausted T cells during viral infection or cancer. EOMES is a key transcription factor for memory T cells and for full effector differentiation of CD8+ T cells. Expression of EOMES is induced in CD8+ T cells following viral infection and bacterial infection, and high levels of EOMES promotes T cell exhaustion. The dynamic expression of these transcription factors help characterize the extent to which a T cell is exhausted and will respond to antigen stimulation (1-5)
PD-1 (PDCD1, CD279), CTLA-4 (CD152), TIGIT (VSIG9, VSTM3), TIM-3 (HAVCR2), LAG3 (CD223), and 2B4 (SLAMF4, CD244) are immune cell co-inhibitory receptors (also known as immune checkpoints) that negatively regulate T cell function and dampen the immune response to pathogens and cancer. In addition to activated T cells, PD-1 is expressed by activated B cells and monocytes. Following interaction with its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, PD-1 is phosphorylated at ITIM and ITSM motifs leading to recruitment of protein tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2 and suppression of TCR signaling. CTLA-4 protein is primarily expressed on T cells, including CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, CD4+ helper T cells, and CD4+/FoxP3+ regulatory T cells. CTLA-4 protein competes with CD28 for B7.1 (CD80) and B7.2 (CD86) binding at the cell surface, resulting in downregulation of T cell activity. TIGIT is expressed at low levels on subsets of T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, and is upregulated at the protein level following activation of these cells. TIGIT marks exhausted T cells in the tumor microenvironment and during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. TIM-3 is expressed by exhausted T cells in the settings of chronic infection and cancer. Tumor-infiltrating macrophages and dendritic cells also express TIM-3. LAG3 is primarily expressed by activated CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, FoxP3+ T regulatory cells (Tregs), and NK cells. 2B4 is a heterophilic cell surface receptor expressed on a variety of immune cells, including NK cells, T cells, eosinophils, mast cells, and dendritic cells. 2B4 has been shown to have both immune stimulatory and inhibitory effects on cells. Co-expression of multiple immune checkpoints help characterize the extent to which a T cell is exhausted and will respond to antigen stimulation. Therapeutic blockade of several of these immune checkpoint receptors is a promising strategy for neoplastic intervention by enabling anti-tumor immune responses (6-13).
Explore pathways related to this product.
Except as otherwise expressly agreed in a writing signed by a legally authorized representative of CST, the following terms apply to Products provided by CST, its affiliates or its distributors. Any Customer's terms and conditions that are in addition to, or different from, those contained herein, unless separately accepted in writing by a legally authorized representative of CST, are rejected and are of no force or effect.
Products are labeled with For Research Use Only or a similar labeling statement and have not been approved, cleared, or licensed by the FDA or other regulatory foreign or domestic entity, for any purpose. Customer shall not use any Product for any diagnostic or therapeutic purpose, or otherwise in any manner that conflicts with its labeling statement. Products sold or licensed by CST are provided for Customer as the end-user and solely for research and development uses. Any use of Product for diagnostic, prophylactic or therapeutic purposes, or any purchase of Product for resale (alone or as a component) or other commercial purpose, requires a separate license from CST. Customer shall (a) not sell, license, loan, donate or otherwise transfer or make available any Product to any third party, whether alone or in combination with other materials, or use the Products to manufacture any commercial products, (b) not copy, modify, reverse engineer, decompile, disassemble or otherwise attempt to discover the underlying structure or technology of the Products, or use the Products for the purpose of developing any products or services that would compete with CST products or services, (c) not alter or remove from the Products any trademarks, trade names, logos, patent or copyright notices or markings, (d) use the Products solely in accordance with CST Product Terms of Sale and any applicable documentation, and (e) comply with any license, terms of service or similar agreement with respect to any third party products or services used by Customer in connection with the Products.