|CD68 (D4B9C) XP® Rabbit mAb 76437||20 µl||
||H Mk||Rabbit IgG|
|CD163 (D6U1J) Rabbit mAb 93498||20 µl||
||H Mk||160, 170||Rabbit IgG|
|CD206/MRC1 (E2L9N) Rabbit mAb 91992||20 µl||
|CD11c (D3V1E) XP® Rabbit mAb 45581||20 µl||
|CD86 (E2G8P) Rabbit mAb 91882||20 µl||
||H Mk||60-85||Rabbit IgG|
|HLA-DRA (E9R2Q) XP® Rabbit mAb 97971||20 µl||
|Phospho-Stat1 (Tyr701) (58D6) Rabbit mAb 9167||20 µl||
||H M||84, 91||Rabbit IgG|
|Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked Antibody 7074||100 µl||
Monoclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a recombinant protein specific to human CD68, CD163, CD206/MRC1, and CD11c, or with synthetic peptides corresponding to residues surrounding Val153 of human HLA-DRA protein and Pro239 of human CD86 protein, or with synthetic phosphopeptides corresponding to residues surrounding Tyr701 of human Stat1 protein.
Macrophages are myeloid cells of the innate immune system that are found in all human tissues in the body and exhibit anatomical and functional diversity. These heterogenous cells are derived from monocyte precursors in the blood that infiltrate into the tissues and differentiate in the presence of cytokines and growth factors. A spectrum of different macrophage phenotypes, or polarizations, have been described based on their secretory profiles, gene expression, and functions. Macrophages have great plasticity and can switch from one phenotype to another under different conditions. At the opposite extremes of this spectrum are so called M1, or classically activated phenotype, and M2 or alternatively activated phenotype. M1 macrophages are generally inflammatory and anti-tumor, while M2 macrophages, commonly referred to as tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), are generally anti-inflammatory and pro-tumor. Relative contents of M1 and M2 macrophages in the tumor microenvironment may have prognostic values. Modulating macrophage polarization is actively pursued as a therapeutic intervention for many different diseases (1-6).
In humans, CD68 is considered a general marker for macrophages. CD11c, CD86, HLA-DRA, phospho-STAT1 (Tyr701), and others have been used as markers for M1 macrophages, while CD163, CD206, and others have been used as markers for M2 macrophages (7-10).
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