Western blot analysis of extracts from various cell lines using PIK3R4 Antibody.
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Supplied in 10 mM sodium HEPES (pH 7.5), 150 mM NaCl, 100 µg/ml BSA and 50% glycerol. Store at –20°C. Do not aliquot the antibody.
For western blots, incubate membrane with diluted primary antibody in 5% w/v nonfat dry milk, 1X TBS, 0.1% Tween® 20 at 4°C with gentle shaking, overnight.
NOTE: Please refer to primary antibody datasheet or product webpage for recommended antibody dilution.
NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalent grade water.
Load 20 µl onto SDS-PAGE gel (10 cm x 10 cm).
NOTE: Volumes are for 10 cm x 10 cm (100 cm2) of membrane; for different sized membranes, adjust volumes accordingly.
* Avoid repeated exposure to skin.
posted June 2005
revised November 2013
Reprobing of an existing membrane is a convenient means to immunoblot for multiple proteins independently when only a limited amount of sample is available. It should be noted that for the best possible results a fresh blot is always recommended. Reprobing can be a valuable method but with each reprobing of a blot there is potential for increased background signal. Additionally, it is recommended that you verify the removal of the first antibody complex prior to reprobing so that signal attributed to binding of the new antibody is not leftover signal from the first immunoblotting experiment. This can be done by re-exposing the blot to ECL reagents and making sure there is no signal prior to adding the next primary antibody.
NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalently purified water.
posted June 2005
revised June 2016
Protocol Id: 263
PIK3R4 Antibody recognizes endogenous levels of total PIK3R4 protein.Species Reactivity:
Human, Mouse, Rat
Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Gly825 of human PIK3R4 protein. Antibodies are purified by protein A and peptide affinity chromatography.
The serine/threonine PI3 kinase regulatory subunit 4 (PIK3R4, Vps15) is the mammalian homologue of the yeast vacuolar protein sorting 15 (1). PIK3R4 regulates the kinase activity of PI3K class III and anchors the kinase to cellular membranes through myristoylation (2,3). Recruitment of PI3K class III to the site of early endosome fusion and docking is directly mediated by PIK3R4 binding to the small GTPase Rab5 through its HEAT and WD-40 domains (4,5). The PIK3R4/PI3K class III plays a role in late endosome function through PIK3R4 binding to the Rab7 GTPase (6). In addition to its role in trafficking, the PIK3R4/PI3K class III complex interacts with beclin-1 to play a role during several stages of autophagy. Autophagosome formation is stimulated when Atg14 complexes with PIK3R4, PI3K class III, and beclin-1. The UVRAG protein competes with Atg14 for beclin-1 binding, forming a mutually exclusive complex with PIK3R4, PI3K class III, and beclin-1 that regulates autophagosome maturation. Autophagosome maturation is impaired in the presence of the beclin-1-binding protein Rubicon (7,8). Co-expression of PIK3R4 is required for PI3K class III activation and regulation by both beclin-1/UVRAG and by nutrients (9). Overexpression of PIK3R4 protein has been associated with decreased survival in patients with ovarian tumors, while mutations of the corresponding PIK3R4 gene are associated with metastatic melanoma, suggesting that PIK3R4 functions in cancer (10,11).
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