The PhosphoPlus® SAPK/JNK (Thr183/Tyr185) Antibody Kit provides reagents and protocols for the rapid analysis of SAPK/JNK phosphorylation.
Phospho-SAPK/JNK (Thr183/Tyr185) Antibody detects endogenous levels of p46 and p54 SAPK/JNK dually phosphorylated at threonine 183 and tyrosine 185. This antibody does not recognize unphosphorylated SAPK/JNK. This antibody may slightly cross-react with phospho-ERK1/2 or -p38 phosphorylated at homologous residues. SAPK/JNK Antibody detects endogenous levels of total SAPK/JNK protein.
Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic phosphopeptide corresponding to residues surrounding Thr183/Tyr185 of human SAPK/JNK or with a recombinant human JNK2 fusion protein. Antibodies are purified by protein A and peptide affinity chromatography.
The stress-activated protein kinase/Jun-amino-terminal kinase SAPK/JNK is potently and preferentially activated by a variety of environmental stresses including UV and gamma radiation, ceramides, inflammatory cytokines, and in some instances, growth factors and GPCR agonists (1-6). As with the other MAPKs, the core signaling unit is composed of a MAPKKK, typically MEKK1-MEKK4, or by one of the mixed lineage kinases (MLKs), which phosphorylate and activate MKK4/7. Upon activation, MKKs phosphorylate and activate the SAPK/JNK kinase (2). Stress signals are delivered to this cascade by small GTPases of the Rho family (Rac, Rho, cdc42) (3). Both Rac1 and cdc42 mediate the stimulation of MEKKs and MLKs (3). Alternatively, MKK4/7 can be activated in a GTPase-independent mechanism via stimulation of a germinal center kinase (GCK) family member (4). There are three SAPK/JNK genes each of which undergoes alternative splicing, resulting in numerous isoforms (3). SAPK/JNK, when active as a dimer, can translocate to the nucleus and regulate transcription through its effects on c-Jun, ATF-2, and other transcription factors (3,5).
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