Supplied in 10 mM sodium HEPES (pH 7.5), 150 mM, NaCl, 100 μg/ml BSA and 50% glycerol. Store at –20°C. Do not aliquot either cocktail.
Traditional biochemical and lysate-based assays (e.g., western blot, immunoprecipitation, ELISA) have been integral in the analysis of individual signaling events, however they are limited in their ability to monitor the phosphorylation and subcellular localization of multiple proteins on a per cell basis. PathScan® Signaling Nodes Multiplex IF Kit offers a novel method to simultaneously monitor signaling through key pathway nodes using manual immunofluorescence microscopy, or automated imaging and laser scanning high content platforms. These kits contains a cocktail of three high quality primary antibodies targeted against phospho-Akt (Ser473), phospho-p44/42 (Thr202/Tyr204), and phospho-S6 (Ser235/236) and a detection cocktail utilizing the Alexa Fluor® series of fluorescent dyes. Antibody formulation and dye pairings have been pre-optimized and each kit contains enough reagents for 100 assays (based on a working volume of 100 μL/test).
Phospho-Akt (Ser473) antibody detects endogenous levels of Akt only when phosphorylated at Ser473. Phospho-p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) (Thr202/Tyr204) antibody detects endogenous levels of p44 and p42 MAP kinase (Erk1 and Erk2) when dually phosphorylated at Thr202 and Tyr204 of Erk1 (Thr185 and Tyr187 of Erk2), and singly phosphorylated at Thr202. This antibody does not cross-react with the corresponding phosphorylated residues of either JNK/SAPK or p38 MAP kinases. Phospho-S6 ribosomal protein (Ser235/236) antibody detects endogenous levels of ribosomal protein S6 only when phosphorylated at Ser235 and Ser236.
Monoclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with synthetic phosphopeptides corresponding to residues surrounding Ser473 of human Akt, Thr202/Tyr204 of human p44 MAP kinase, and Ser235/Ser236 of human ribosomal protein S6.
Akt, also referred to as PKB or Rac, plays a critical role in controlling the balance between survival and apoptosis (1-3). This protein kinase is a downstream effector of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), and is activated by phospholipid binding and activation loop phosphorylation at Thr308 by PDK1 (4), as well as by phosphorylation within the carboxy terminus at Ser473 by the mTOR-rictor complex (TORC2) (5). This pathway is down-regulated following dephosphorylation of phosphatidyl-inositol 3,4,5 triphosphate by PTEN, as well as by deactivation of PI3K with targeted small molecule inhibitors such as wortmannin and LY294002 (2,3,6,7).
p70 S6 kinase, a mitogen activated Ser/Thr protein kinase downstream of PI3K and the mTOR-raptor complex (mTORC1), phosphorylates the S6 protein of the 40S ribosomal subunit leading to an increase in translation of mRNA transcripts that contain an oligopyrimidine tract in their 5’ untranslated region (8). These particular mRNA transcripts (5’TOP) encode proteins involved in cell cycle progression, as well as ribosomal proteins and elongation factors necessary for translation (8,9). Important S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation sites include several residues (Ser235, Ser236, Ser240 and Ser244) located within a small, carboxy-terminal region of the S6 protein (10,11).
Both p44 and p42 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases (Erk1 and Erk2, respectively) play a critical role in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation (12-15). MAP kinases are activated by a wide variety of extracellular signals including growth and neurotrophic factors, cytokines, hormones, and neurotransmitters. Activation of MAP kinases occur through phosphorylation of Thr202/Tyr204 on human Erk1 and Thr185/Tyr187 on human Erk2 at the sequence T*EY* by a pair of upstream MAP kinase kinases (MEK1/2) (16,17). Erk proteins are negatively regulated by a family of dual specificity (Thr/Tyr) MAPK phosphatases, known as DUSPs or MKPs (18), along with MEK inhibitors such as U0126 and PD98059. Erk dependent phosphorylation of TSC2 at Ser663 leads to the functional inactivation of the TSC1/TSC2 inhibitory complex, and subsequent downstream activation of S6 ribosomal protein through the mTORC1/p70 S6K signaling cascade (19).
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