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90947
STING (E9X7F) Rabbit mAb
Primary Antibodies
Monoclonal Antibody

STING (E9X7F) Rabbit mAb #90947

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Immunofluorescence Image 1: STING (E9X7F) Rabbit mAb
Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of fixed frozen mouse lymph node, labeled with STING (E9X7F) Rabbit mAb (left, red) and co-labeled with CD45R/B220 (RA3-6B2) Rat mAb (FITC Conjugate) #34399 (right, green) and DAPI #4083 (right, blue).
Immunofluorescence Image 2: STING (E9X7F) Rabbit mAb
Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of fixed frozen mouse spleen at lower magnification (left) and higher magnification (right) labeled with STING (E9X7F) Rabbit mAb (top, red) and colabeled with CD45R/B220 (RA3-6B2) Rat mAb (FITC Conjugate) #34399 (bottom, green) and DAPI #4083 (bottom, blue).
Immunofluorescence Image 3: STING (E9X7F) Rabbit mAb
Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of fixed frozen mouse liver labeled with STING (E9X7F) Rabbit mAb (left, red). Free secondary binding sites were then blocked with Rabbit (DA1E) mAb IgG XP® Isotype Control #3900 prior to co-labeling with COL1A1 (E8F4L) XP® Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 647 Conjugate) #72827 (right, cyan pseudocolor) and DAPI #4083 (right, blue).
Immunofluorescence Image 1: STING (E9X7F) Rabbit mAb
Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of J774A.1 cells (left, high-expressing) and MBT2 cells (right, low-expressing) using STING (E9X7F) Rabbit mAb (green), β-Actin (8H10D10) Mouse mAb #3700 (red), and DAPI #4083 (blue).
Immunofluorescence Image 2: STING (E9X7F) Rabbit mAb
Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of MOLP-8 cells (left, positive) and A549 cells (right, negative) using STING (E9X7F) Rabbit mAb (green), β-Actin (8H10D10) Mouse mAb #3700 (red), and DAPI #4083 (blue).
Flow Cytometry Image 1: STING (E9X7F) Rabbit mAb
Flow cytometric analysis of A549 cells (blue, negative) and THP-1 cells (green, positive) using STING (E9X7F) Rabbit mAb (solid lines) or concentration-matched Rabbit (DA1E) mAb IgG XP® Isotype Control #3900 (dashed lines). Anti-rabbit IgG (H+L), F(ab')2 Fragment (Alexa Fluor® 488 Conjugate) #4412 was used as a secondary antibody.
Flow Cytometry Image 2: STING (E9X7F) Rabbit mAb
Flow cytometric analysis of NIH/3T3 cells (blue, low-expressing) and J774A.1 cells (green, high-expressing) using STING (E9X7F) Rabbit mAb (solid lines) or concentration-matched Rabbit (DA1E) mAb IgG XP® Isotype Control #3900 (dashed lines). Anti-rabbit IgG (H+L), F(ab')2 Fragment (Alexa Fluor® 488 Conjugate) #4412 was used as a secondary antibody.
To Purchase # 90947
Cat. # Size Qty. Price
90947S
100 µl
$ 287

Supporting Data

REACTIVITY H M
SENSITIVITY Endogenous
MW (kDa)
Source/Isotype Rabbit IgG

Application Key:

  • WB-Western Blot
  • IP-Immunoprecipitation
  • IHC-Immunohistochemistry
  • ChIP-Chromatin Immunoprecipitation
  • C&R-CUT&RUN
  • C&T-CUT&Tag
  • DB-Dot Blot
  • eCLIP-eCLIP
  • IF-Immunofluorescence
  • F-Flow Cytometry

Species Cross-Reactivity Key:

  • H-Human
  • M-Mouse
  • R-Rat
  • Hm-Hamster
  • Mk-Monkey
  • Vir-Virus
  • Mi-Mink
  • C-Chicken
  • Dm-D. melanogaster
  • X-Xenopus
  • Z-Zebrafish
  • B-Bovine
  • Dg-Dog
  • Pg-Pig
  • Sc-S. cerevisiae
  • Ce-C. elegans
  • Hr-Horse
  • All-All Species Expected

Product Usage Information

Application Dilution
Immunofluorescence (Frozen) 1:800 - 1:3200
Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry) 1:3200 - 1:12800
Flow Cytometry 1:1600

Storage

Supplied in 10 mM sodium HEPES (pH 7.5), 150 mM NaCl, 100 µg/mL BSA, 50% glycerol, and less than 0.02% sodium azide. Store at –20°C. Do not aliquot the antibody.

Protocol

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Immunofluorescence (Frozen)

A. Solutions and Reagents

NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalent grade water.

  1. 20X Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS): (9808) To prepare 1L 1X PBS: add 50 ml 20X PBS to 950 ml dH2O, mix. Adjust pH to 8.0.
  2. Formaldehyde: 16%, methanol free, Polysciences, Inc. (cat# 18814), use fresh and store opened vials at 4°C in dark, dilute in 1X PBS for use.
  3. Blocking Buffer: (1X PBS / 5% normal serum / 0.3% Triton™ X-100): To prepare 10 ml, add 0.5 ml normal serum from the same species as the secondary antibody (e.g., Normal Goat Serum (#5425) to 9.5 ml 1X PBS) and mix well. While stirring, add 30 µl Triton™ X-100.
  4. Antibody Dilution Buffer: (1X PBS / 1% BSA / 0.3% Triton™ X-100): To prepare 10 ml, add 30 µl Triton™ X-100 to 10 ml 1X PBS. Mix well then add 0.1 g BSA (#9998), mix.
  5. Recommended Fluorochrome-conjugated Anti-Rabbit secondary antibodies:

    NOTE: When using any primary or fluorochrome-conjugated secondary antibody for the first time, titrate the antibody to determine which dilution allows for the strongest specific signal with the least background for your sample.

  6. Prolong® Gold AntiFade Reagent (#9071), Prolong® Gold AntiFade Reagent with DAPI (#8961).

B. Specimen Preparation - Frozen/Cryostat Sections (IF-F)

  1. For fixed frozen tissue proceed with Immunostaining (Section C).
  2. For fresh, unfixed frozen tissue, please fix immediately, as follows:
    1. Cover sections with 4% formaldehyde dilute in 1X PBS.

      NOTE: Formaldehyde is toxic, use only in fume hood.

    2. Allow sections to fix for 15 minutes at room temperature.
    3. Aspirate liquid, rinse three times in 1X PBS for 5 minutes each.
    4. Proceed with Immunostaining (Section C).

C. Immunostaining

NOTE: All subsequent incubations should be carried out at room temperature unless otherwise noted in a humid light-tight box or covered dish/plate to prevent drying and fluorochrome fading.

  1. Block specimen in Blocking Buffer for 60 min.
  2. While blocking, prepare primary antibody by diluting as indicated on protocol on product webpage in Antibody Dilution Buffer.
  3. Aspirate blocking solution, apply diluted primary antibody.
  4. Incubate overnight at 4°C.
  5. Rinse three times in 1X PBS for 5 min each.
  6. Incubate specimen in fluorochrome-conjugated secondary antibody diluted in Antibody Dilution Buffer for 1–2 hr at room temperature in the dark.
  7. Rinse three times in 1X PBS for 5 min each.
  8. Coverslip slides with Prolong® Gold Antifade Reagent (#9071) or Prolong® Gold Antifade Reagent with DAPI (#8961).
  9. For best results, allow mountant to cure overnight at room temperature. For long-term storage, store slides flat at 4°C protected from light.

posted November 2006

revised July 2016

Protocol Id: 151

Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

A. Solutions and Reagents

NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalently purified water.

  1. 20X Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS): (9808) To prepare 1L 1X PBS: add 50 ml 20X PBS to 950 ml dH2O, mix. Adjust pH to 8.0.
  2. Formaldehyde: 16%, methanol free, Polysciences, Inc. (cat# 18814), use fresh and store opened vials at 4°C in dark, dilute in 1X PBS for use.
  3. Methanol, 100%
  4. Blocking Buffer (1X PBS / 5% normal serum / 0.3% Triton™ X-100): To prepare 10 ml, add 0.5 ml normal serum from the same species as the secondary antibody (e.g., Normal Goat Serum (#5425)) and 0.5 mL 20X PBS to 9.0 mL dH2O, mix well. While stirring, add 30 µl Triton™ X-100.
  5. Antibody Dilution Buffer (1X PBS / 1% BSA / 0.3% Triton X-100): To prepare 10 ml, add 30 µl Triton™ X-100 to 10 ml 1X PBS. Mix well then add 0.1 g BSA (9998), mix.
  6. Recommended Fluorochrome-conjugated Anti-Rabbit secondary antibodies:

  7. Prolong® Gold AntiFade Reagent (#9071), Prolong® Gold AntiFade Reagent with DAPI (#8961).

B. Specimen Preparation - Cultured Cell Lines (IF-IC)

NOTE: Cells should be grown, treated, fixed and stained directly in multiwell plates, chamber slides or on coverslips.

  1. Aspirate liquid, then cover cells to a depth of 2–3 mm with 4% formaldehyde in 1X PBS.
    NOTE: Formaldehyde is toxic, use only in fume hood.
  2. Allow cells to fix for 15 minutes at room temperature.
  3. Aspirate fixative, rinse three times in 1X PBS for 5 minutes each.
  4. Proceed with Immunostaining (Section C).

C. Immunostaining

NOTE: All subsequent incubations should be carried out at room temperature unless otherwise noted in a humid light-tight box or covered dish/plate to prevent drying and fluorochrome fading.

  1. Methanol Permeabilization Step: Cover cells with ice-cold 100% methanol (use enough to cover completely to a depth of 3–5 mm, DO NOT LET DRY), incubate in methanol for 10 minutes at –20°C, rinse in 1X PBS for 5 minutes.
  2. Block specimen in Blocking Buffer for 60 minutes.
  3. While blocking, prepare primary antibody by diluting as indicated on product webpage in Antibody Dilution Buffer.
  4. Aspirate blocking solution, apply diluted primary antibody.
  5. Incubate overnight at 4°C.
  6. Rinse three times in 1X PBS for 5 minutes each.
  7. Incubate specimen in fluorochrome-conjugated secondary antibody diluted in Antibody Dilution Buffer for 1–2 hours at room temperature in dark.
  8. Rinse in 1X PBS as in step 6.
  9. Coverslip slides with Prolong® Gold Antifade Reagent (#9071), Prolong® Gold AntiFade Reagent with DAPI (#8961).
  10. For best results examine specimens immediately using appropriate excitation wavelength. For long term storage, store slides flat at 4°C protected from light.

posted November 2006

revised December 2010

Protocol Id: 32

Flow Cytometry, Methanol Permeabilization Protocol for Rabbit Antibodies

A. Solutions and Reagents

All reagents required for this protocol may be efficiently purchased together in our Intracellular Flow Cytometry Kit (Methanol) #13593, or individually using the catalog numbers listed below.

NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalent grade water.

  1. 1X Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS): To prepare 1 L 1X PBS: add 100 ml 10X PBS (#12528) to 900 ml water mix.
  2. 4% Formaldehyde, Methanol-Free (#47746)
  3. 100% Methanol (#13604): Chill before use
  4. Antibody Dilution Buffer: Purchase ready-to-use Flow Cytometry Antibody Dilution Buffer (#13616), or prepare a 0.5% BSA PBS buffer by dissolving 0.5 g Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) (#9998) in 100 ml 1X PBS. Store at 4°C.
  5. Recommended Anti-Rabbit secondary antibodies::
    • Anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L), F(ab')2 Fragment (Alexa Fluor® 488 Conjugate) #4412
    • Anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L), F(ab')2 Fragment (Alexa Fluor® 594 Conjugate) #8889
    • Anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L), F(ab')2 Fragment (Alexa Fluor® 647 Conjugate) #4414
    • Anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L), F(ab')2 Fragment (PE Conjugate) #79408

NOTE: When including fluorescent cellular dyes in your experiment (including viability dyes, DNA dyes, etc.), please refer to the dye product page for the recommended protocol. Visit www.cellsignal.com for a full listing of cellular dyes validated for use in flow cytometry.

B. Fixation

NOTE: Adherent cells or tissue should be dissociated and in single-cell suspension prior to fixation.

NOTE: Optimal centrifugation conditions will vary depending upon cell type and reagent volume. Generally, 150-300g for 1-5 minutes will be sufficient to pellet the cells.

NOTE: If using whole blood, lyse red blood cells and wash by centrifugation prior to fixation.

NOTE: Antibodies targeting CD markers or other extracellular proteins may be added prior to fixation if the epitope is disrupted by formaldehyde and/or methanol. The antibodies will remain bound to the target of interest during the fixation and permeabilization process. However, note that some fluorophores (including PE and APC) are damaged by methanol and thus should not be added prior to permeabilization. Conduct a small-scale experiment if you are unsure.

  1. Pellet cells by centrifugation and remove supernatant.
  2. Resuspend cells in approximately 100 µl 4% formaldehyde per 1 million cells. Mix well to dissociate pellet and prevent cross-linking of individual cells.
  3. Fix for 15 min at room temperature (20-25°C).
  4. Wash by centrifugation with excess 1X PBS. Discard supernatant in appropriate waste container. Resuspend cells in 0.5-1 ml 1X PBS. Proceed to Permeabilization step.
    1. Alternatively, cells may be stored overnight at 4°C in 1X PBS.

C. Permeabilization

  1. Permeabilize cells by adding ice-cold 100% methanol slowly to pre-chilled cells, while gently vortexing, to a final concentration of 90% methanol.
  2. Permeabilize for a minimum of 10 min on ice.
  3. Proceed with immunostaining (Section D) or store cells at -20°C in 90% methanol.

D. Immunostaining

NOTE: Count cells using a hemocytometer or alternative method.

  1. Aliquot desired number of cells into tubes or wells. (Generally, 5x105 to 1x106 cells per assay.)
  2. Wash cells by centrifugation in excess 1X PBS to remove methanol. Discard supernatant in appropriate waste container. Repeat if necessary.
  3. Resuspend cells in 100 µl of diluted primary antibody, prepared in Antibody Dilution Buffer at a recommended dilution or as determined via titration.
  4. Incubate for 1 hr at room temperature.
  5. Wash by centrifugation in Antibody Dilution Buffer or 1X PBS. Discard supernatant. Repeat.
  6. Resuspend cells in 100 µl of diluted fluorochrome-conjugated secondary antibody (prepared in Antibody Dilution Buffer at the recommended dilution).
  7. Incubate for 30 min at room temperature. Protect from light.
  8. Wash by centrifugation in Antibody Dilution Buffer or 1X PBS. Discard supernatant. Repeat.
  9. Resuspend cells in 200-500 µl of 1X PBS and analyze on flow cytometer.

posted July 2009

revised June 2020

Protocol Id: 404

Specificity / Sensitivity

STING (E9X7F) Rabbit mAb recognizes endogenous levels of total STING protein. STING (E9X7F) Rabbit mAb lacks sensitivity in some low-expressing mouse cell lines by immunofluorescence. This lack of sensitivity has not been observed in human cell lines.

Species Reactivity:

Human, Mouse

Source / Purification

Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with human STING recombinant protein and reacts with an epitope near the carboxy terminus.

Background

Stimulator of interferon genes (STING, TMEM173, MITA) is a transmembrane adaptor protein that is a critical component of the cellular innate immune response to pathogenic cytoplasmic DNA (1,2). STING is a ubiquitously expressed protein found predominantly in the ER (1). The enzyme cGAMP synthase (cGAS) produces the second messenger cyclic-GMP-AMP (cGAMP) in response to cytoplasmic DNA (3,4). cGAMP binds and activates STING (3,4). In addition, detection of cytoplasmic DNA by nucleic acid sensors, including DDX41 or IFI16, results in STING activation (5,6). Following activation, STING translocates with TBK1 to perinuclear endosomes and gets phosphorylated by ULK1 at Ser366 (Ser365 in mouse) (7, 8). The TBK1 kinase phosphorylates and activates IRF-3 and NF-κB, which leads to the induction of type I interferon and other immune response genes (1,2,7).
  1. Ishikawa, H. and Barber, G.N. (2008) Nature 455, 674-8.
  2. Zhong, B. et al. (2008) Immunity 29, 538-50.
  3. Sun, L. et al. (2013) Science 339, 786-91.
  4. Wu, J. et al. (2013) Science 339, 826-30.
  5. Zhang, Z. et al. (2011) Nat Immunol 12, 959-65.
  6. Unterholzner, L. et al. (2010) Nat Immunol 11, 997-1004.
  7. Ishikawa, H. et al. (2009) Nature 461, 788-92.
  8. Konno, H. et al. (2013) Cell 155, 688-98.

Pathways & Proteins

Explore pathways + proteins related to this product.

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