CST's Survival Marker: Signal Stain® Phospho-Akt (Ser473) IHC Detection Kit is a "ready to use" system designed to detect the activation of Akt in human tissue and cell preparations using immunohistochemistry. The kit utilizes the ABC immunoperoxidase method to detect endogenous levels of phosphorylated Akt protein. Prediluted Phospho-Akt (Ser473) Antibody is bound by a biotinylated secondary antibody. Avidin DH and biotinylated horseradish peroxidase are complexed by mixing defined amounts prior to use, and the mixture subsequently binds the secondary antibody. The macromolecular complex is localized by incubation with NovaRED™ enzyme substrate.
The prediluted primary antibody, along with the ABC system, allows the user to consistently examine phosphorylated-Akt localization and offers the highest sensitivity with the lowest background.
Survival Marker: Signal Stain® Phospho-Akt (Ser473) IHC Detection Kit detects Akt1 only when phosphorylated at serine 473, and Akt2 and Akt3 only when phosphorylated at equivalent sites. The antibody does not detect Akt phosphorylated at other sites or related kinases such as PKC or p70 S6 kinase. This kit was developed for and is recommended for immunohistochemistry only.
Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic phosphopeptide corresponding to residues around Ser473 of mouse Akt. Antibodies are purified by protein A and peptide affinity chromatography.
Akt, also referred to as PKB or Rac, plays a critical role in controlling survival and apoptosis (1-3). This protein kinase is activated by insulin and various growth and survival factors to function in a wortmannin-sensitive pathway involving PI3 kinase (2,3). Akt is activated by phospholipid binding and activation loop phosphorylation at Thr308 by PDK1 (4) and by phosphorylation within the carboxy terminus at Ser473. The previously elusive PDK2 responsible for phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 has been identified as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in a rapamycin-insensitive complex with rictor and Sin1 (5,6). Akt promotes cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis through phosphorylation and inactivation of several targets, including Bad (7), forkhead transcription factors (8), c-Raf (9), and caspase-9. PTEN phosphatase is a major negative regulator of the PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway (10). LY294002 is a specific PI3 kinase inhibitor (11). Another essential Akt function is the regulation of glycogen synthesis through phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3α and β (12,13). Akt may also play a role in insulin stimulation of glucose transport (12). In addition to its role in survival and glycogen synthesis, Akt is involved in cell cycle regulation by preventing GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of cyclin D1 (14) and by negatively regulating the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p27 Kip1 (15) and p21 Waf1/Cip1 (16). Akt also plays a critical role in cell growth by directly phosphorylating mTOR in a rapamycin-sensitive complex containing raptor (17). More importantly, Akt phosphorylates and inactivates tuberin (TSC2), an inhibitor of mTOR within the mTOR-raptor complex (18,19).
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Cell Signaling Technology is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
SignalStain is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
NovaRED is a trademark of Vector Laboratories.