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PKM2 (D78A4) XP® Rabbit mAb (Sepharose® Bead Conjugate) #13266
Immunoprecipitation of PKM2 from 3T3 cell extracts using Rabbit (DA1E) mAb IgG XP® Isotype Control (Sepharose Bead Conjugate) #3423 (lane 2) and PKM2 (D78A4) XP® Rabbit mAb (Sepharose® Bead Conjugate) (lane 3). Lane 1 is 10% input. Western blot analysis was performed using PKM2 (D78A4) XP® Rabbit mAb #4053 and Mouse Anti-rabbit IgG (Conformation Specific) (L27A9) mAb (HRP Conjugate) #5127.Learn more about how we get our images
Gallery: PKM2 (D78A4) XP® Rabbit mAb (Sepharose® Bead Conjugate) #13266
Immunoprecipitation for Analysis by Western Blotting
This protocol is intended for immunoprecipitation of native proteins for analysis by western immunoblot or kinase activity.
A. Solutions and Reagents
NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalently purified water.
- 20X Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS): (#9808).
10X Cell Lysis Buffer: (#9803) 20 mM Tris (pH 7.5), 150 mM NaCl, 1 mM EDTA, 1 mM EGTA, 1% Triton X-100, 2.5 mM Sodium pyrophosphate, 1 mM β-glycerophosphate, 1 mM Na3VO4, 1 μg/ml Leupeptin
NOTE: CST recommends adding 1 mM PMSF (#8553) before use*.
- 3X SDS Sample Buffer: (#7722) 187.5 mM Tris-HCl (pH 6.8 at 25°C), 6% w/v SDS, 30% glycerol, 150 mM DTT, 0.03% w/v bromophenol blue
- 10X Kinase Buffer (for kinase assays): (#9802) To Prepare 1 ml of 1X kinase buffer, add 100 µl 10X kinase buffer to 900 µl dH2O, mix.
- ATP (10 mM) (for kinase assays): (#9804) To prepare 0.5 ml of ATP (200 µM), add 10 µl ATP (10 mM) to 490 µl 1X kinase buffer.
B. Preparing Cell Lysates
- Aspirate media. Treat cells by adding fresh media containing regulator for desired time.
- To harvest cells under nondenaturing conditions, remove media and rinse cells once with ice-cold PBS.
- Remove PBS and add 0.5 ml 1X ice-cold cell lysis buffer to each plate (10 cm) and incubate the plates on ice for 5 minutes.
- Scrape cells off the plates and transfer to microcentrifuge tubes. Keep on ice.
- Sonicate samples on ice three times for 5 seconds each.
- Microcentrifuge for 10 minutes at 4°C, 14,000 x g, and transfer the supernatant to a new tube. If necessary, lysate can be stored at –80°C.
- Take 200 μl cell lysate and add 10 μl of the immobilized antibody, incubate with rotation overnight at 4°C.
- Microcentrifuge for 30 seconds at 4°C. Wash pellet five times with 500 μl of 1X cell lysis buffer. Keep on ice during washes.
- Proceed to sample analysis by western blotting or kinase activity (section D).
D. Sample Analysis
Proceed to one of the following specific set of steps.
For Analysis by Western Immunoblotting
- Resuspend the pellet with 20 µl 3X SDS sample buffer. Vortex, then microcentrifuge for 30 sec at 14,000 x g.
- Heat the sample to 95–100°C for 2-5 min and microcentrifuge for 1 min at 14,000 x g.
- Load the sample (15–30 µl) on a 4–20% gel for SDS-PAGE.
- Analyze sample by western blot (see Western Immunoblotting Protocol).
NOTE: To minimize masking caused by denatured IgG heavy chains (~50 kDa), we recommend using Mouse Anti-Rabbit IgG (Light-Chain Specific) (L57A3) mAb (#3677) or Mouse Anti-Rabbit IgG (Conformation Specific) (L27A9) mAb (#3678) (or HRP conjugate #5127). To minimize masking caused by denatured IgG light chains (~25 kDa), we recommend using Mouse Anti-Rabbit IgG (Conformation Specific) (L27A9) mAb (#3678) (or HRP conjugate #5127).
For Analysis by Kinase Assay
- Wash pellet twice with 500 µl 1X kinase buffer. Keep on ice.
- Suspend pellet in 40 µl 1X kinase buffer supplemented with 200 µM ATP and appropriate substrate.
- Incubate for 30 min at 30°C.
- Terminate reaction with 20 µl 3X SDS sample buffer. Vortex, then microcentrifuge for 30 sec.
- Transfer supernatant containing phosphorylated substrate to another tube.
- Heat the sample to 95–100°C for 2–5 min and microcentrifuge for 1 min at 14,000 x g.
- Load the sample (15–30 µl) on SDS-PAGE (4–20%).
posted December 2007
PKM2 (D78A4) XP® Rabbit mAb (Sepharose® Bead Conjugate) detects endogenous levels of total PKM2 protein.Species Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat, Monkey
Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to the sequence of human PKM2 protein.
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is immobilized via covalent binding of primary amino groups to N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-activated sepharose® beads. PKM2 (D78A4) XP® Rabbit mAb (Sepharose® Bead Conjugate) is useful for the immunoprecipitation of PKM2. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated PKM2 (D78A4) XP® Rabbit mAb #4053.
Pyruvate kinase is a glycolytic enzyme that catalyses the conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate. In mammals, the M1 isoform (PKM1) is expressed in most adult tissues (1). The M2 isoform (PKM2) is an alternatively spliced variant of M1 that is expressed during embryonic development (1). Research studies found that cancer cells exclusively express PKM2 (1-3). PKM2 is shown to be essential for aerobic glycolysis in tumors, known as the Warburg effect (1). When cancer cells switch from the M2 isoform to the M1 isoform, aerobic glycolysis is reduced and oxidative phosphorylation is increased (1). These cells also show decreased tumorigenicity in mouse xenografts (1). Recent studies showed that PKM2 is not essential for all tumor cells (4). In the tumor model studied, PKM2 was found to be active in the non-proliferative tumor cell population and inactive in the proliferative tumor cell population (4).
For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures. Cell Signaling Technology is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc. XP is a registered trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc. Sepharose is a registered trademark of GE Healthcare.