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Antibody Sampler Kit Channel Activity

Also showing Antibody Sampler Kit Protein Channel Activity

The Silent Synapses Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means of detecting the activation of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPAR) using phospho-specific and control antibodies. AMPARs expression can be compared to other synaptic components including NMDA-type glutamate receptor subunit GluN1 and the synaptic scaffolding protein PSD95. The kit includes enough antibody to perform two western blot experiments with each primary antibody.

Background: AMPA- (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid), kainate-, and NMDA- (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors are the three main families of ionotropic glutamate-gated ion channels. AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are composed of four subunits (GluA1-4), which assemble as homo- or hetero-tetramers to mediate the majority of fast excitatory transmissions in the central nervous system. AMPARs are implicated in synapse formation, stabilization, and plasticity (1). In contrast to GluA2-containing AMPARs, AMPARs that lack GluA2 are permeable to calcium (2). Post-transcriptional modifications (alternative splicing, nuclear RNA editing) and post-translational modifications (glycosylation, phosphorylation) result in a very large number of permutations, fine-tuning the kinetic properties and surface expression of AMPARs representing key pathways to mediate synaptic plasticity (3). During development and mature states, some synapses exhibit “silent synapses” that lack functional AMPAR-mediated transmission. Synapses become “unsilenced” by post-translational modification of GluAs, particularly GluA1, which alters its kinetic properties and/or surface expression while other synaptic components, such as other glutamate receptors like NMDARs and postsynaptic scaffolding proteins like PSD95, remain unaltered. Conversely, reducing the AMPAR kinetic properties and surface expression can silence synapses. Key post-translational modifications implicated in regulating these processes include phosphorylation of GluA1 at Ser831 and Ser845 (4). Research studies have implicated activity-dependent changes in AMPARs in a variety of diseases, including Alzheimer’s, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), stroke, and epilepsy (1).

The AMPA Receptor (GluA) Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means of evaluating the four subunits of AMPARs. The kit contains enough primary and secondary antibodies to perform two western blot experiments with each antibody.

Background: AMPA- (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid), kainate-, and NMDA- (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors are the three main families of ionotropic glutamate-gated ion channels. AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are comprised of four subunits (GluR 1-4), which assemble as homo- or hetero-tetramers to mediate the majority of fast excitatory transmissions in the central nervous system. AMPARs are implicated in synapse formation, stabilization, and plasticity (1). In contrast to GluR 2-containing AMPARs, AMPARs that lack GluR 2 are permeable to calcium (2). Post-transcriptional modifications (alternative splicing, nuclear RNA editing) and post-translational modifications (glycosylation, phosphorylation) result in a very large number of permutations, fine-tuning the kinetic properties of AMPARs. Research studies have implicated activity changes in AMPARs in a variety of diseases including Alzheimer’s, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), stroke, and epilepsy (1).

The Pro-Apoptosis Bcl-2 Family Antibody Sampler Kit II provides an economical means to examine several members of the Bcl-2 family. The kit contains enough primary antibody to perform two western blot experiments.

Background: The Bcl-2 family consists of a number of evolutionarily conserved proteins containing Bcl-2 homology domains (BH) that regulate apoptosis through control of mitochondrial membrane permeability and release of cytochrome c (1-3). Four BH domains have been identified (BH1-4) that mediate protein interactions. The family can be separated into three groups based upon function and sequence homology: pro-survival members include Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Mcl-1, A1 and Bcl-w; pro-apoptotic proteins include Bax, Bak and Bok; and "BH3 only" proteins Bad, Bik, Bid, Puma, Bim, Bmf, Noxa and Hrk. Interactions between death-promoting and death-suppressing Bcl-2 family members has led to a rheostat model in which the ratio of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins controls cell fate (4). Thus, pro-survival members exert their behavior by binding to and antagonizing death-promoting members. In general, the "BH3-only members" can bind to and antagonize the pro-survival proteins leading to increased apoptosis (5). While some redundancy of this system likely exists, tissue specificity, transcriptional and post-translational regulation of many of these family members can account for distinct physiological roles.

The Pro-Apoptosis Bcl-2 Family Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means to examine several members of the Bcl-2 family and their activation status. The kit contains enough primary and secondary antibodies to perform two Western blot experiments per primary antibody.

Background: The Bcl-2 family consists of a number of evolutionarily conserved proteins containing Bcl-2 homology domains (BH) that regulate apoptosis through control of mitochondrial membrane permeability and release of cytochrome c (1-3). Four BH domains have been identified (BH1-4) that mediate protein interactions. The family can be separated into three groups based upon function and sequence homology: pro-survival members include Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Mcl-1, A1 and Bcl-w; pro-apoptotic proteins include Bax, Bak and Bok; and "BH3 only" proteins Bad, Bik, Bid, Puma, Bim, Bmf, Noxa and Hrk. Interactions between death-promoting and death-suppressing Bcl-2 family members has led to a rheostat model in which the ratio of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins controls cell fate (4). Thus, pro-survival members exert their behavior by binding to and antagonizing death-promoting members. In general, the "BH3-only members" can bind to and antagonize the pro-survival proteins leading to increased apoptosis (5). While some redundancy of this system likely exists, tissue specificity, transcriptional and post-translational regulation of many of these family members can account for distinct physiological roles.

The Cardiogenesis Marker Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means of evaluating proteins involved in heart development. This kit contains enough antibody to perform two western blot experiments per primary antibody.
The γ Secretase Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means of evaluating components of the gamma secretase complex. The kit contains enough primary and secondary antibodies to perform two western miniblot experiments.
The Tyro/Axl/Mer Activation Sampler Kit provides an economical means of detecting the activation of TAM family members using phospho-specific and control antibodies. The kit includes enough antibodies to perform two western blot experiments with each primary antibody.

Background: Axl, Mer and Tyro3 are three members of the TAM family receptor tyrosine kinase that share a common NCAM (neural adhesion molecule)-related extracellular domain and a conserved intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. These receptors bind common homologous vitamin K dependent protein GAS6 and protein S to activate downstream signaling pathways (1). TAM family receptors are involved in the development of immune, nervous, vascular and reproductive systems, autoimmune disease, cancer drug resistance and tumor immunity response (2-5). Axl (Tyr698), Axl (Tyr702), Mer Tyr(749) and Tyro3 (Tyr681) are conserved autophosphorylation sites located in the activation loop of the respective tyrosine kinase domains. Phosphorylation at these sites is required for full kinase activation of each of the corresponding receptors (6,7).

The Pro-Survival Bcl-2 Family Antibody Sampler Kit II provides an economical means to examine several members of the Bcl-2 family. The kit contains enough primary antibody to perform two western blot experiments.

Background: The Bcl-2 family consists of a number of evolutionarily conserved proteins containing Bcl-2 homology domains (BH) that regulate apoptosis through control of mitochondrial membrane permeability and release of cytochrome c (1-3). Four BH domains have been identified (BH1-4) that mediate protein interactions. The family can be separated into three groups based upon function and sequence homology: pro-survival members include Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Mcl-1, A1 and Bcl-w; pro-apoptotic proteins include Bax, Bak and Bok; and "BH3 only" proteins Bad, Bik, Bid, Puma, Bim, Bmf, Noxa and Hrk. Interactions between death-promoting and death-suppressing Bcl-2 family members has led to a rheostat model in which the ratio of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins controls cell fate (4). Thus, pro-survival members exert their behavior by binding to and antagonizing death-promoting members. In general, the "BH3-only members" can bind to and antagonize the pro-survival proteins leading to increased apoptosis (5). While some redundancy of this system likely exists, tissue specificity, transcriptional and post-translational regulation of many of these family members can account for distinct physiological roles.

The Integrin Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means to screen samples for α and β subunits of integrin molecules. The kit includes enough primary and secondary antibody to perform two Western blot experiments with each antibody.
The Mitochondrial Marker Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means to evaluate relevant mitochondial proteins. This kit contains enough primary antibody to perform two western blots per primary.
The 14-3-3 Family Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means to investigate the expression of various 14-3-3 isoforms within the cell. The kit contains enough primary and secondary antibodies to perform two Western blot experiments.

Background: The 14-3-3 family of proteins plays a key regulatory role in signal transduction, checkpoint control, apoptotic and nutrient-sensing pathways (1,2). 14-3-3 proteins are highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed. There are at least seven isoforms, β, γ, ε, σ, ζ, τ, and η that have been identified in mammals. The initially described α and δ isoforms are confirmed to be phosphorylated forms of β and ζ, respectively (3). Through their amino-terminal α helical region, 14-3-3 proteins form homo- or heterodimers that interact with a wide variety of proteins: transcription factors, metabolic enzymes, cytoskeletal proteins, kinases, phosphatases, and other signaling molecules (3,4). The interaction of 14-3-3 proteins with their targets is primarily through a phospho-Ser/Thr motif. However, binding to divergent phospho-Ser/Thr motifs, as well as phosphorylation independent interactions has been observed (4). 14-3-3 binding masks specific sequences of the target protein, and therefore, modulates target protein localization, phosphorylation state, stability, and molecular interactions (1-4). 14-3-3 proteins may also induce target protein conformational changes that modify target protein function (4,5). Distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns of 14-3-3 isoforms have been observed in development and in acute response to extracellular signals and drugs, suggesting that 14-3-3 isoforms may perform different functions despite their sequence similarities (4). Several studies suggest that 14-3-3 isoforms are differentially regulated in cancer and neurological syndromes (2,3).

The Huntingtin Interaction Antibody Sampler kit provides an economical means of detecting transcription-related proteins that interact with Huntingtin (Htt). This kit contains enough antibody to perform two western blot experiments per primary antibody.
The Jak/Stat Pathway Inhibitors Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means to examine several inhibitors of Jak/Stat signaling, including PIAS1, PIAS3, PIAS4, SOCS1, SOCS2, and SOCS3. The kit contains enough primary antibody to perform two western blot experiments with each primary antibody.