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Bovine Negative Regulation of Cell Cycle

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Dog, Hamster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The 90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinases (RSK1-4) are a family of widely expressed Ser/Thr kinases characterized by two nonidentical, functional kinase domains (1) and a carboxy-terminal docking site for extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) (2). Several sites both within and outside of the RSK kinase domain, including Ser380, Thr359, Ser363, and Thr573, are important for kinase activation (3). RSK1-3 are activated via coordinated phosphorylation by MAPKs, autophosphorylation, and phosphoinositide-3-OH kinase (PI3K) in response to many growth factors, polypeptide hormones, and neurotransmitters (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: HSPA8, alternately known as HSC70 or HSP73, is a constitutively expressed member of the HSP70 superfamily (1). Although its primary role in cells appears to be that of a general chaperone for unfolded proteins, HSPA8 has also been identified as the uncoating ATPase responsible for removing clathrin from coated vesicles and may also play a role in stabilizing untranslated mRNAs (1-5). In addition to these "housekeeping" functions, HSPA8 may also have an important role in inducible cellular stress responses. For example, oxidative or thermal stress promotes the nuclear/nucleolar accumulation of HSPA8, where it forms a complex with the topoisomerase I complex and likely protects it from heat inactivation (6,7). HSPA8 is reportedly phosphorylated in response to DNA damage, but it remains unclear what effect, if any, this has on HSPA8 function (8-10). Numerous high throughput studies support this observation. For more information, please see the HSPA8 page in PhosphoSitePlus® at www.phosphosite.org.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Mammalian sterile-20-like (MST) kinases are upstream regulators of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways that regulate multiple biological processes, including apoptosis, morphogenesis, cell migration, and cytoskeletal rearrangements (1). This group of serine/threonine kinases includes a pair of closely related proteins (MST1, MST2) that are functionally distinct from the more distantly related MST3 and MST4 kinases. All four MST kinases share a conserved amino-terminal kinase domain and carboxy-terminal regulatory and interaction domains (1-3). At least three of these kinases (MST1-3) promote apoptosis and are activated by caspase cleavage followed by nuclear translocation of the active kinase. MST1/2 kinases play a key role in the Hippo signaling pathway, an evolutionarily conserved program that controls organ size by regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis, and stem cell self renewal (4).Mammalian Sterile 20-like kinase 3 (MST3, STK24) is ubiquitously expressed as a longer MST3b isoform and a shorter MST3a protein lacking a portion of the amino-terminal region (5). The widely expressed MST3a protein regulates apoptosis and cell motility, as well as neuronal migration during CNS development (6,7). MST3 phosphorylates and activates the NDR protein kinases that regulate cell cycle progression and cell morphology (8). Autophosphorylation of MST3 at Thr178 is required for in vitro kinase activity, and alteration of this residue inhibits MST3 regulation of cell migration in vivo (7). The brain-specific MST3b protein is activated by nerve growth factor or inosine and localizes to neurons where it helps regulate axon growth and regeneration (9).

$305
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology (CST) antibody is conjugated to the carbohydrate groups of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) via its amine groups. The HRP conjugated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated antibody (p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) (137F5) Rabbit mAb #4695).
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, C. elegans, D. melanogaster, Dog, Hamster, Human, Mink, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat, Zebrafish

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a widely conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in many cellular programs, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, and death. The p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) signaling pathway can be activated in response to a diverse range of extracellular stimuli including mitogens, growth factors, and cytokines (1-3), and research investigators consider it an important target in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer (4). Upon stimulation, a sequential three-part protein kinase cascade is initiated, consisting of a MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK or MAP3K), a MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK or MAP2K), and a MAP kinase (MAPK). Multiple p44/42 MAP3Ks have been identified, including members of the Raf family, as well as Mos and Tpl2/COT. MEK1 and MEK2 are the primary MAPKKs in this pathway (5,6). MEK1 and MEK2 activate p44 and p42 through phosphorylation of activation loop residues Thr202/Tyr204 and Thr185/Tyr187, respectively. Several downstream targets of p44/42 have been identified, including p90RSK (7) and the transcription factor Elk-1 (8,9). p44/42 are negatively regulated by a family of dual-specificity (Thr/Tyr) MAPK phosphatases, known as DUSPs or MKPs (10), along with MEK inhibitors, such as U0126 and PD98059.

$327
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor®647 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis of human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Phospho-p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) (Thr202/Tyr204) (E10) Mouse mAb #9106.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Hamster, Human, Mink, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat, Zebrafish

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a widely conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in many cellular programs, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, and death. The p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) signaling pathway can be activated in response to a diverse range of extracellular stimuli including mitogens, growth factors, and cytokines (1-3), and research investigators consider it an important target in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer (4). Upon stimulation, a sequential three-part protein kinase cascade is initiated, consisting of a MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK or MAP3K), a MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK or MAP2K), and a MAP kinase (MAPK). Multiple p44/42 MAP3Ks have been identified, including members of the Raf family, as well as Mos and Tpl2/COT. MEK1 and MEK2 are the primary MAPKKs in this pathway (5,6). MEK1 and MEK2 activate p44 and p42 through phosphorylation of activation loop residues Thr202/Tyr204 and Thr185/Tyr187, respectively. Several downstream targets of p44/42 have been identified, including p90RSK (7) and the transcription factor Elk-1 (8,9). p44/42 are negatively regulated by a family of dual-specificity (Thr/Tyr) MAPK phosphatases, known as DUSPs or MKPs (10), along with MEK inhibitors, such as U0126 and PD98059.

$111
20 µl
$260
200 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, C. elegans, D. melanogaster, Dog, Hamster, Human, Mink, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat, Zebrafish

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a widely conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in many cellular programs, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, and death. The p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) signaling pathway can be activated in response to a diverse range of extracellular stimuli including mitogens, growth factors, and cytokines (1-3), and research investigators consider it an important target in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer (4). Upon stimulation, a sequential three-part protein kinase cascade is initiated, consisting of a MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK or MAP3K), a MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK or MAP2K), and a MAP kinase (MAPK). Multiple p44/42 MAP3Ks have been identified, including members of the Raf family, as well as Mos and Tpl2/COT. MEK1 and MEK2 are the primary MAPKKs in this pathway (5,6). MEK1 and MEK2 activate p44 and p42 through phosphorylation of activation loop residues Thr202/Tyr204 and Thr185/Tyr187, respectively. Several downstream targets of p44/42 have been identified, including p90RSK (7) and the transcription factor Elk-1 (8,9). p44/42 are negatively regulated by a family of dual-specificity (Thr/Tyr) MAPK phosphatases, known as DUSPs or MKPs (10), along with MEK inhibitors, such as U0126 and PD98059.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Human, Monkey, Pig

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: JunD, along with closely related family members c-Jun and JunB, is a transcription factor that can activate or repress a wide array of target genes (1,2). JunD transcriptional activity is modulated by phosphorylation in response to cellular stress via the c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK)/Stress-Activated Protein Kinase (SAPK) family of protein kinases (3,4). JunD activity can also be modulated by the MAPK pathway in response to growth factors. Its transcriptional capacity is further regulated by other binding partners that affect JunD expression levels and DNA binding capacity (reviewed in 5). All Jun proteins are capable of forming dimers with Fos-, ATF- and CREB-family transcription factors to form the AP-1 complex that differentially regulates a variety of target genes involved in cellular growth, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis (reviewed in 5 and 6). Unlike JunB and c-Jun, which share a high degree of homology (>95%), JunD is less conserved (~75%) at the amino acid level (1). Growing evidence suggests that JunD protein expression is regulated independently of other family members (reviewed in 5). It is thought that JunD may have functional significance beyond the typical Jun-family milieu. This is exemplified by the fact that JunD knockout mice are viable, bearing specific defects in cardiomyocyte function and bone growth, whereas their c-Jun counterparts develop significant, multi-organ defects during embryogenesis and die at E12.5 (7-10). JunD appears to specifically regulate genes involved in antioxidant response and hydrogen peroxide production and plays an important role in angiogenesis via its ability to exert transcriptional control over the VEGF gene (11). Furthermore, JunD appears to play an important roll in metabolism via modulation of IGF-I signaling pathways (12). Recent studies have shown that JunD regulates GADD45 α and γ expression in prostate cancer cells and that inhibition of JunD promotes apoptosis. Thus, JunD may be a viable therapeutic target for the treatment of prostate cancer (13).

$305
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology (CST) antibody is conjugated to biotin under optimal conditions. The unconjugated p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) (137F5) Rabbit mAb #4695 reacts with human, mouse, rat, monkey, mink, pig, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster, hamster, bovine and zebrafish p44/42 MAPK protein. CST expects that p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) (137F5) Rabbit mAb (Biotinylated) will also recognize MAPK in these species.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, C. elegans, D. melanogaster, Dog, Hamster, Human, Mink, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat, Zebrafish

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a widely conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in many cellular programs, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, and death. The p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) signaling pathway can be activated in response to a diverse range of extracellular stimuli including mitogens, growth factors, and cytokines (1-3), and research investigators consider it an important target in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer (4). Upon stimulation, a sequential three-part protein kinase cascade is initiated, consisting of a MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK or MAP3K), a MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK or MAP2K), and a MAP kinase (MAPK). Multiple p44/42 MAP3Ks have been identified, including members of the Raf family, as well as Mos and Tpl2/COT. MEK1 and MEK2 are the primary MAPKKs in this pathway (5,6). MEK1 and MEK2 activate p44 and p42 through phosphorylation of activation loop residues Thr202/Tyr204 and Thr185/Tyr187, respectively. Several downstream targets of p44/42 have been identified, including p90RSK (7) and the transcription factor Elk-1 (8,9). p44/42 are negatively regulated by a family of dual-specificity (Thr/Tyr) MAPK phosphatases, known as DUSPs or MKPs (10), along with MEK inhibitors, such as U0126 and PD98059.

$364
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology® antibody is conjugated to the carbohydrate groups of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) via its amine groups. The HRP conjugated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Phospho-p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) (Thr202/Tyr204) (D13.14.4E) XP® Rabbit mAb #4370.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, D. melanogaster, Dog, Hamster, Human, Mink, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat, S. cerevisiae, Zebrafish

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a widely conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in many cellular programs, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, and death. The p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) signaling pathway can be activated in response to a diverse range of extracellular stimuli including mitogens, growth factors, and cytokines (1-3), and research investigators consider it an important target in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer (4). Upon stimulation, a sequential three-part protein kinase cascade is initiated, consisting of a MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK or MAP3K), a MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK or MAP2K), and a MAP kinase (MAPK). Multiple p44/42 MAP3Ks have been identified, including members of the Raf family, as well as Mos and Tpl2/COT. MEK1 and MEK2 are the primary MAPKKs in this pathway (5,6). MEK1 and MEK2 activate p44 and p42 through phosphorylation of activation loop residues Thr202/Tyr204 and Thr185/Tyr187, respectively. Several downstream targets of p44/42 have been identified, including p90RSK (7) and the transcription factor Elk-1 (8,9). p44/42 are negatively regulated by a family of dual-specificity (Thr/Tyr) MAPK phosphatases, known as DUSPs or MKPs (10), along with MEK inhibitors, such as U0126 and PD98059.

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) (137F5) Rabbit mAb #4695.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, C. elegans, D. melanogaster, Dog, Hamster, Human, Mink, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat, Zebrafish

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a widely conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in many cellular programs, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, and death. The p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) signaling pathway can be activated in response to a diverse range of extracellular stimuli including mitogens, growth factors, and cytokines (1-3), and research investigators consider it an important target in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer (4). Upon stimulation, a sequential three-part protein kinase cascade is initiated, consisting of a MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK or MAP3K), a MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK or MAP2K), and a MAP kinase (MAPK). Multiple p44/42 MAP3Ks have been identified, including members of the Raf family, as well as Mos and Tpl2/COT. MEK1 and MEK2 are the primary MAPKKs in this pathway (5,6). MEK1 and MEK2 activate p44 and p42 through phosphorylation of activation loop residues Thr202/Tyr204 and Thr185/Tyr187, respectively. Several downstream targets of p44/42 have been identified, including p90RSK (7) and the transcription factor Elk-1 (8,9). p44/42 are negatively regulated by a family of dual-specificity (Thr/Tyr) MAPK phosphatases, known as DUSPs or MKPs (10), along with MEK inhibitors, such as U0126 and PD98059.

$303
200 µl
$717
600 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, C. elegans, D. melanogaster, Hamster, Human, Mink, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat, Zebrafish

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a widely conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in many cellular programs, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, and death. The p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) signaling pathway can be activated in response to a diverse range of extracellular stimuli including mitogens, growth factors, and cytokines (1-3), and research investigators consider it an important target in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer (4). Upon stimulation, a sequential three-part protein kinase cascade is initiated, consisting of a MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK or MAP3K), a MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK or MAP2K), and a MAP kinase (MAPK). Multiple p44/42 MAP3Ks have been identified, including members of the Raf family, as well as Mos and Tpl2/COT. MEK1 and MEK2 are the primary MAPKKs in this pathway (5,6). MEK1 and MEK2 activate p44 and p42 through phosphorylation of activation loop residues Thr202/Tyr204 and Thr185/Tyr187, respectively. Several downstream targets of p44/42 have been identified, including p90RSK (7) and the transcription factor Elk-1 (8,9). p44/42 are negatively regulated by a family of dual-specificity (Thr/Tyr) MAPK phosphatases, known as DUSPs or MKPs (10), along with MEK inhibitors, such as U0126 and PD98059.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Hamster, Human, Mink, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat, Zebrafish

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a widely conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in many cellular programs, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, and death. The p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) signaling pathway can be activated in response to a diverse range of extracellular stimuli including mitogens, growth factors, and cytokines (1-3), and research investigators consider it an important target in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer (4). Upon stimulation, a sequential three-part protein kinase cascade is initiated, consisting of a MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK or MAP3K), a MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK or MAP2K), and a MAP kinase (MAPK). Multiple p44/42 MAP3Ks have been identified, including members of the Raf family, as well as Mos and Tpl2/COT. MEK1 and MEK2 are the primary MAPKKs in this pathway (5,6). MEK1 and MEK2 activate p44 and p42 through phosphorylation of activation loop residues Thr202/Tyr204 and Thr185/Tyr187, respectively. Several downstream targets of p44/42 have been identified, including p90RSK (7) and the transcription factor Elk-1 (8,9). p44/42 are negatively regulated by a family of dual-specificity (Thr/Tyr) MAPK phosphatases, known as DUSPs or MKPs (10), along with MEK inhibitors, such as U0126 and PD98059.

$364
400 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology (CST) antibody is immobilized via covalent binding of primary amino groups to N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-activated Sepharose® beads. Phospho-p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) (Thr202/Tyr204) (D13.14.4E) XP® Rabbit mAb (Sepharose® Bead Conjugate) is useful for immunoprecipitation assays. The unconjugated Phospho-p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) (Thr202/Tyr204) (D13.14.4E) XP® Rabbit mAb (#4370) reacts with human, mouse, rat, monkey, mink, pig, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster, hamster, bovine and zebrafish Phospho-p44/42 MAPK protein. CST expects that Phospho-p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) (Thr202/Tyr204) (D13.14.4E) XP® Rabbit mAb (Sepharose® Bead Conjugate) will also recognize phospho MAPK in these species.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, D. melanogaster, Dog, Hamster, Human, Mink, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat, S. cerevisiae, Zebrafish

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation

Background: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a widely conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in many cellular programs, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, and death. The p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) signaling pathway can be activated in response to a diverse range of extracellular stimuli including mitogens, growth factors, and cytokines (1-3), and research investigators consider it an important target in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer (4). Upon stimulation, a sequential three-part protein kinase cascade is initiated, consisting of a MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK or MAP3K), a MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK or MAP2K), and a MAP kinase (MAPK). Multiple p44/42 MAP3Ks have been identified, including members of the Raf family, as well as Mos and Tpl2/COT. MEK1 and MEK2 are the primary MAPKKs in this pathway (5,6). MEK1 and MEK2 activate p44 and p42 through phosphorylation of activation loop residues Thr202/Tyr204 and Thr185/Tyr187, respectively. Several downstream targets of p44/42 have been identified, including p90RSK (7) and the transcription factor Elk-1 (8,9). p44/42 are negatively regulated by a family of dual-specificity (Thr/Tyr) MAPK phosphatases, known as DUSPs or MKPs (10), along with MEK inhibitors, such as U0126 and PD98059.

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Mammalian sterile-20-like (MST) kinases are upstream regulators of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways that regulate multiple cellular processes, including proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and cytoskeletal rearrangement (1). This family of serine/threonine kinases includes MST1 (STK4) and MST2 (STK3), two functionally related proteins with conserved amino-terminal kinase domains and carboxy-terminal regulatory domains that contain nuclear export signals (1-3). During apoptosis, caspase-mediated cleavage of MST1/2 removes the inhibitory regulatory domain, triggering autophosphorylation and activation of the kinase domain, which is translocated to the nucleus. Nuclear translocation of the active kinase induces chromatin condensation and other events associated with apoptotic progression (4).Research studies indicate that MST1/2 are orthologous to Drosophila Hippo (Hpo), one of the core regulatory proteins in the Hippo signaling pathway. This evolutionarily conserved program controls tissue growth and organ size by regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis, and stem cell self-renewal. The mammalian Hippo signaling pathway involves a kinase cascade, where the MST1/2 kinases and the SAV1 scaffold protein form a complex that leads to phosphorylation and activation of LATS1/2. The LATS1/2 kinases phosphorylate YAP and TAZ, promoting cytoplasmic sequestration and inhibition of these transcription coactivators (5).

$134
20 µl
$336
200 µl
$792
600 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, D. melanogaster, Dog, Hamster, Human, Mink, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat, S. cerevisiae, Zebrafish

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a widely conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in many cellular programs, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, and death. The p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) signaling pathway can be activated in response to a diverse range of extracellular stimuli including mitogens, growth factors, and cytokines (1-3), and research investigators consider it an important target in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer (4). Upon stimulation, a sequential three-part protein kinase cascade is initiated, consisting of a MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK or MAP3K), a MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK or MAP2K), and a MAP kinase (MAPK). Multiple p44/42 MAP3Ks have been identified, including members of the Raf family, as well as Mos and Tpl2/COT. MEK1 and MEK2 are the primary MAPKKs in this pathway (5,6). MEK1 and MEK2 activate p44 and p42 through phosphorylation of activation loop residues Thr202/Tyr204 and Thr185/Tyr187, respectively. Several downstream targets of p44/42 have been identified, including p90RSK (7) and the transcription factor Elk-1 (8,9). p44/42 are negatively regulated by a family of dual-specificity (Thr/Tyr) MAPK phosphatases, known as DUSPs or MKPs (10), along with MEK inhibitors, such as U0126 and PD98059.

$327
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis of human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Phospho-p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) (Thr202/Tyr204) (E10) Mouse mAb #9106.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Hamster, Human, Mink, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat, Zebrafish

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a widely conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in many cellular programs, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, and death. The p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) signaling pathway can be activated in response to a diverse range of extracellular stimuli including mitogens, growth factors, and cytokines (1-3), and research investigators consider it an important target in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer (4). Upon stimulation, a sequential three-part protein kinase cascade is initiated, consisting of a MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK or MAP3K), a MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK or MAP2K), and a MAP kinase (MAPK). Multiple p44/42 MAP3Ks have been identified, including members of the Raf family, as well as Mos and Tpl2/COT. MEK1 and MEK2 are the primary MAPKKs in this pathway (5,6). MEK1 and MEK2 activate p44 and p42 through phosphorylation of activation loop residues Thr202/Tyr204 and Thr185/Tyr187, respectively. Several downstream targets of p44/42 have been identified, including p90RSK (7) and the transcription factor Elk-1 (8,9). p44/42 are negatively regulated by a family of dual-specificity (Thr/Tyr) MAPK phosphatases, known as DUSPs or MKPs (10), along with MEK inhibitors, such as U0126 and PD98059.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Human, Mink, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat, Zebrafish

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a widely conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in many cellular programs, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, and death. The p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) signaling pathway can be activated in response to a diverse range of extracellular stimuli including mitogens, growth factors, and cytokines (1-3), and research investigators consider it an important target in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer (4). Upon stimulation, a sequential three-part protein kinase cascade is initiated, consisting of a MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK or MAP3K), a MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK or MAP2K), and a MAP kinase (MAPK). Multiple p44/42 MAP3Ks have been identified, including members of the Raf family, as well as Mos and Tpl2/COT. MEK1 and MEK2 are the primary MAPKKs in this pathway (5,6). MEK1 and MEK2 activate p44 and p42 through phosphorylation of activation loop residues Thr202/Tyr204 and Thr185/Tyr187, respectively. Several downstream targets of p44/42 have been identified, including p90RSK (7) and the transcription factor Elk-1 (8,9). p44/42 are negatively regulated by a family of dual-specificity (Thr/Tyr) MAPK phosphatases, known as DUSPs or MKPs (10), along with MEK inhibitors, such as U0126 and PD98059.

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology (CST) antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated antibody (p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) (137F5) Rabbit mAb #4695).
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, C. elegans, D. melanogaster, Dog, Hamster, Human, Mink, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat, Zebrafish

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a widely conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in many cellular programs, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, and death. The p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) signaling pathway can be activated in response to a diverse range of extracellular stimuli including mitogens, growth factors, and cytokines (1-3), and research investigators consider it an important target in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer (4). Upon stimulation, a sequential three-part protein kinase cascade is initiated, consisting of a MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK or MAP3K), a MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK or MAP2K), and a MAP kinase (MAPK). Multiple p44/42 MAP3Ks have been identified, including members of the Raf family, as well as Mos and Tpl2/COT. MEK1 and MEK2 are the primary MAPKKs in this pathway (5,6). MEK1 and MEK2 activate p44 and p42 through phosphorylation of activation loop residues Thr202/Tyr204 and Thr185/Tyr187, respectively. Several downstream targets of p44/42 have been identified, including p90RSK (7) and the transcription factor Elk-1 (8,9). p44/42 are negatively regulated by a family of dual-specificity (Thr/Tyr) MAPK phosphatases, known as DUSPs or MKPs (10), along with MEK inhibitors, such as U0126 and PD98059.

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology (CST) antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 647 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated antibody (p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) (137F5) Rabbit mAb #4695).
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, C. elegans, D. melanogaster, Dog, Hamster, Human, Mink, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat, Zebrafish

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Background: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a widely conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in many cellular programs, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, and death. The p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) signaling pathway can be activated in response to a diverse range of extracellular stimuli including mitogens, growth factors, and cytokines (1-3), and research investigators consider it an important target in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer (4). Upon stimulation, a sequential three-part protein kinase cascade is initiated, consisting of a MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK or MAP3K), a MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK or MAP2K), and a MAP kinase (MAPK). Multiple p44/42 MAP3Ks have been identified, including members of the Raf family, as well as Mos and Tpl2/COT. MEK1 and MEK2 are the primary MAPKKs in this pathway (5,6). MEK1 and MEK2 activate p44 and p42 through phosphorylation of activation loop residues Thr202/Tyr204 and Thr185/Tyr187, respectively. Several downstream targets of p44/42 have been identified, including p90RSK (7) and the transcription factor Elk-1 (8,9). p44/42 are negatively regulated by a family of dual-specificity (Thr/Tyr) MAPK phosphatases, known as DUSPs or MKPs (10), along with MEK inhibitors, such as U0126 and PD98059.

$305
400 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is immobilized via covalent binding of primary amino groups to N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-activated Sepharose® beads. p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) (137F5) Rabbit mAb (Sepharose® Bead Conjugate) is useful for immunoprecipitation assays. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) (137F5) Rabbit mAb #4695.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, C. elegans, D. melanogaster, Dog, Hamster, Human, Mink, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat, Zebrafish

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation

Background: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a widely conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in many cellular programs, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, and death. The p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) signaling pathway can be activated in response to a diverse range of extracellular stimuli including mitogens, growth factors, and cytokines (1-3), and research investigators consider it an important target in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer (4). Upon stimulation, a sequential three-part protein kinase cascade is initiated, consisting of a MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK or MAP3K), a MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK or MAP2K), and a MAP kinase (MAPK). Multiple p44/42 MAP3Ks have been identified, including members of the Raf family, as well as Mos and Tpl2/COT. MEK1 and MEK2 are the primary MAPKKs in this pathway (5,6). MEK1 and MEK2 activate p44 and p42 through phosphorylation of activation loop residues Thr202/Tyr204 and Thr185/Tyr187, respectively. Several downstream targets of p44/42 have been identified, including p90RSK (7) and the transcription factor Elk-1 (8,9). p44/42 are negatively regulated by a family of dual-specificity (Thr/Tyr) MAPK phosphatases, known as DUSPs or MKPs (10), along with MEK inhibitors, such as U0126 and PD98059.