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ELISA Kit ELISA Protein Phosphatase Binding

$499
96 assays
1 Kit
The FastScan™ Phospho-Smad2 (Ser465/467) ELISA Kit is a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of Smad2 when phosphorylated at Ser465/467. To perform the assay, sample is incubated with a capture antibody conjugated with a proprietary tag and a second detection antibody linked to HRP, forming a sandwich with phospho-Smad2 (Ser465/467) in solution. This entire complex is immobilized to the plate via an anti-tag antibody. The wells are then washed to remove unbound material. TMB is then added. The magnitude of observed signal is proportional to the quantity of phospho-Smad2 (Ser465/467). Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Members of the Smad family of signal transduction molecules are components of a critical intracellular pathway that transmit TGF-β signals from the cell surface into the nucleus. Three distinct classes of Smads have been defined: the receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads), which include Smad1, 2, 3, 5, and 8; the common-mediator Smad (co-Smad), Smad4; and the antagonistic or inhibitory Smads (I-Smads), Smad6 and 7 (1-5). Activated type I receptors associate with specific R-Smads and phosphorylate them on a conserved carboxy terminal SSXS motif. The phosphorylated R-Smad dissociates from the receptor and forms a heteromeric complex with the co-Smad (Smad4), allowing translocation of the complex to the nucleus. Once in the nucleus, Smads can target a variety of DNA binding proteins to regulate transcriptional responses (6-8).

$499
96 assays
1 Kit
The FastScan™ Total Smad2 ELISA Kit is a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of Smad2. To perform the assay, sample is incubated with a capture antibody conjugated with a proprietary tag and a second detection antibody linked to HRP, forming a sandwich with Smad2 in solution. This entire complex is immobilized to the plate via an anti-tag antibody. The wells are then washed to remove unbound material. TMB is then added. The magnitude of observed signal is proportional to the quantity of Smad2. Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Background: Members of the Smad family of signal transduction molecules are components of a critical intracellular pathway that transmit TGF-β signals from the cell surface into the nucleus. Three distinct classes of Smads have been defined: the receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads), which include Smad1, 2, 3, 5, and 8; the common-mediator Smad (co-Smad), Smad4; and the antagonistic or inhibitory Smads (I-Smads), Smad6 and 7 (1-5). Activated type I receptors associate with specific R-Smads and phosphorylate them on a conserved carboxy terminal SSXS motif. The phosphorylated R-Smad dissociates from the receptor and forms a heteromeric complex with the co-Smad (Smad4), allowing translocation of the complex to the nucleus. Once in the nucleus, Smads can target a variety of DNA binding proteins to regulate transcriptional responses (6-8).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Total Stat6 Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of Stat6 protein. A Stat6 Mouse mAb has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, Stat6 protein is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, a Stat6 Rabbit Dectection Antibody is added to detect captured Stat6 protein. Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked Antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of the absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of Stat6 protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Background: Upon activation by Janus kinases, Stat6 translocates to the nucleus where it regulates cytokine-induced gene expression. Stat6 is activated via phosphorylation at Tyr641 and is required for responsiveness to IL-4 and IL-13 (1-4). In addition, Stat6 is activated by IFN-α in B cells, where it forms transcriptionally active complexes with Stat2 and p48 (5,6). Protein phosphatase 2A is also involved in regulation of IL-4-mediated Stat6 signaling (7).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Phospho-Stat6 (Tyr641) Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of Stat6 protein phosphorylated at Tyr641. A Stat6 Mouse mAb has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, Stat6 (phospho or nonphospho) protein is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, Phospho-Stat6 (Tyr641) Rabbit Detection Antibody is added to detect the captured phospho-Stat6 protein. Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked Antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of the absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of Stat6 phosphorylated at Tyr641.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Upon activation by Janus kinases, Stat6 translocates to the nucleus where it regulates cytokine-induced gene expression. Stat6 is activated via phosphorylation at Tyr641 and is required for responsiveness to IL-4 and IL-13 (1-4). In addition, Stat6 is activated by IFN-α in B cells, where it forms transcriptionally active complexes with Stat2 and p48 (5,6). Protein phosphatase 2A is also involved in regulation of IL-4-mediated Stat6 signaling (7).

$499
96 assays
1 Kit
The FastScan™ Phospho-Stat6 (Tyr641) ELISA Kit is a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of Stat6 when phosphorylated at Tyr641. To perform the assay, sample is incubated with a capture antibody conjugated with a proprietary tag and a second detection antibody linked to HRP, forming a sandwich with phospho-Stat6 (Tyr641) in solution. This entire complex is immobilized to the plate via an anti-tag antibody. The wells are then washed to remove unbound material. TMB is then added. The magnitude of observed signal is proportional to the quantity of phospho-Stat6 (Tyr641). Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Upon activation by Janus kinases, Stat6 translocates to the nucleus where it regulates cytokine-induced gene expression. Stat6 is activated via phosphorylation at Tyr641 and is required for responsiveness to IL-4 and IL-13 (1-4). In addition, Stat6 is activated by IFN-α in B cells, where it forms transcriptionally active complexes with Stat2 and p48 (5,6). Protein phosphatase 2A is also involved in regulation of IL-4-mediated Stat6 signaling (7).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Total ROS1 Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of ROS1 protein. A ROS1 mouse antibody has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, ROS1 protein (phospho and nonphospho) is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, a ROS1 rabbit detection antibody is added to detect captured ROS1 protein. Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate TMB is added to develop color. The magnitude of the absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of Ros protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: ROS1, an orphan receptor tyrosine kinase of the insulin receptor family, was initially identified as a homolog of v-ros from the UR2 sarcoma virus (1). ROS1 consists of a large extracellular domain that is composed of six fibronectin repeats, a transmembrane domain, and an intracellular kinase domain. While the function of ROS1 is undefined, it has been shown to play an important role in differentiation of epididymal epithelium (2). The first oncogenic fusion of ROS1, FIG-ROS1, was initially identified by research studies in glioblastoma (3), and subsequent studies have found this fusion in cholangiocarcinoma (4), ovarian cancer (5) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (6). Investigators have found additional oncogenic ROS1 fusion proteins in NSCLC (at a frequency of ~1.6%), where the ROS1 kinase domain is fused to the amino-terminal region of a number of different proteins, including CD74 and SLC34A2 (6-8). ROS1 fusion proteins activate the SHP-2 phosphatase, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, Erk, and Stat3 pathways (3,4,9).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
CST’s PathScan® Phospho-Stat5 (Tyr694) Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of Stat5a when phosphorylated at Tyr694 and Stat5b at Tyr699. A Phospho-Stat5 Mouse Antibody has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, phospho-Stat5a (Tyr694) and phospho-Stat5b (Tyr699) proteins are captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, a Stat5 Rabbit Detection Antibody is added to detect the captured phospho-Stat5a and phospho-Stat5b protein. Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of Stat5a phosphorylated at Tyr694 and Stat5b phosphorylated at Tyr699.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Stat5 is activated in response to a wide variety of ligands including IL-2, GM-CSF, growth hormone and prolactin. Phosphorylation at Tyr694 is obligatory for Stat5 activation (1,2). This phosphorylation is mediated by Src upon erythropoietin stimulation (3). Stat5 is constitutively active in some leukemic cell types (4). Phosphorylated Stat5 is found in some endothelial cells treated with IL-3, which suggests its involvement in angiogenesis and cell motility (5). Stat5a and Stat5b are independently regulated and activated in various cell types. For instance, interferon treatment predominantly activates Stat5a in U-937 cells and Stat5b in HeLa cells (6).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
CST's PathScan® Phospho-PTEN (Ser380) Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of phospho-PTEN (Ser380) protein. A PTEN Mouse mAb has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, PTEN protein (phospho and non-phospho) is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, Phospho-PTEN (Ser380) Antibody is added to detect the captured phospho-PTEN (Ser380) protein. Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked Antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of phospho-PTEN (Ser380) protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse

Background: PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten), also referred to as MMAC (mutated in multiple advanced cancers) phosphatase, is a tumor suppressor implicated in a wide variety of human cancers (1). PTEN encodes a 403 amino acid polypeptide originally described as a dual-specificity protein phosphatase (2). The main substrates of PTEN are inositol phospholipids generated by the activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) (3). PTEN is a major negative regulator of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway (1,4,5). PTEN possesses a carboxy-terminal, noncatalytic regulatory domain with three phosphorylation sites (Ser380, Thr382, and Thr383) that regulate PTEN stability and may affect its biological activity (6,7). PTEN regulates p53 protein levels and activity (8) and is involved in G protein-coupled signaling during chemotaxis (9,10).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Total PTEN Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenously expressed PTEN. A PTEN rabbit antibody has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, PTEN is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, a PTEN mouse detection antibody is added to detect the captured PTEN. Anti-mouse IgG, HRP-linked antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate (TMB) is added to develop color. The magnitude of the absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of PTEN.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Background: PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten), also referred to as MMAC (mutated in multiple advanced cancers) phosphatase, is a tumor suppressor implicated in a wide variety of human cancers (1). PTEN encodes a 403 amino acid polypeptide originally described as a dual-specificity protein phosphatase (2). The main substrates of PTEN are inositol phospholipids generated by the activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) (3). PTEN is a major negative regulator of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway (1,4,5). PTEN possesses a carboxy-terminal, noncatalytic regulatory domain with three phosphorylation sites (Ser380, Thr382, and Thr383) that regulate PTEN stability and may affect its biological activity (6,7). PTEN regulates p53 protein levels and activity (8) and is involved in G protein-coupled signaling during chemotaxis (9,10).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
CST's PathScan® Phospho-Bad (Ser112) Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of phospho-Bad (Ser112) protein. A Bad rabbit mAb has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, Bad protein (phospho and nonphospho) is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, a phospho-Bad (Ser112) mouse mAb is added to detect the captured phospho-Bad protein. Anti-mouse IgG, HRP-linked Antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of phospho-Bad (Ser112) protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse

Background: Bad is a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family that promotes cell death by displacing Bax from binding to Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL (1,2). Survival factors, such as IL-3, inhibit the apoptotic activity of Bad by activating intracellular signaling pathways that result in the phosphorylation of Bad at Ser112 and Ser136 (2). Phosphorylation at these sites promotes binding of Bad to 14-3-3 proteins to prevent an association between Bad with Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL (2). Akt phosphorylates Bad at Ser136 to promote cell survival (3,4). Bad is phosphorylated at Ser112 both in vivo and in vitro by p90RSK (5,6) and mitochondria-anchored PKA (7). Phosphorylation at Ser155 in the BH3 domain by PKA plays a critical role in blocking the dimerization of Bad and Bcl-xL (8-10).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
CST's PathScan® Phospho-Akt (Thr308) Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects phospho-Akt (Thr308) protein. An Akt Antibody has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, both phospho- and nonphospho-Akt proteins are captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, Phospho-Akt (Thr308) Mouse mAb is added to detect the captured phospho-Akt protein. Anti-mouse IgG, HRP-linked Antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of optical density for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of phospho-Akt (Thr308) protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Background: Akt, also referred to as PKB or Rac, plays a critical role in controlling survival and apoptosis (1-3). This protein kinase is activated by insulin and various growth and survival factors to function in a wortmannin-sensitive pathway involving PI3 kinase (2,3). Akt is activated by phospholipid binding and activation loop phosphorylation at Thr308 by PDK1 (4) and by phosphorylation within the carboxy terminus at Ser473. The previously elusive PDK2 responsible for phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 has been identified as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in a rapamycin-insensitive complex with rictor and Sin1 (5,6). Akt promotes cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis through phosphorylation and inactivation of several targets, including Bad (7), forkhead transcription factors (8), c-Raf (9), and caspase-9. PTEN phosphatase is a major negative regulator of the PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway (10). LY294002 is a specific PI3 kinase inhibitor (11). Another essential Akt function is the regulation of glycogen synthesis through phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3α and β (12,13). Akt may also play a role in insulin stimulation of glucose transport (12). In addition to its role in survival and glycogen synthesis, Akt is involved in cell cycle regulation by preventing GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of cyclin D1 (14) and by negatively regulating the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p27 Kip1 (15) and p21 Waf1/Cip1 (16). Akt also plays a critical role in cell growth by directly phosphorylating mTOR in a rapamycin-sensitive complex containing raptor (17). More importantly, Akt phosphorylates and inactivates tuberin (TSC2), an inhibitor of mTOR within the mTOR-raptor complex (18,19).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Total HER2/ErbB2 Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of HER2/ErbB2 protein. A HER2/ErbB2 mouse antibody has been coated on the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, HER2/ErbB2 protein (phospho and nonphospho) is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, a HER2/ErbB2 rabbit antibody is added to detect captured HER2/ErbB2 protein. Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of the absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of HER2/ErbB2 protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: The ErbB2 (HER2) proto-oncogene encodes a 185 kDa transmembrane, receptor-like glycoprotein with intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity (1). While ErbB2 lacks an identified ligand, ErbB2 kinase activity can be activated in the absence of a ligand when overexpressed and through heteromeric associations with other ErbB family members (2). Amplification of the ErbB2 gene and overexpression of its product are detected in almost 40% of human breast cancers (3). Binding of the c-Cbl ubiquitin ligase to ErbB2 at Tyr1112 leads to ErbB2 poly-ubiquitination and enhances degradation of this kinase (4). ErbB2 is a key therapeutic target in the treatment of breast cancer and other carcinomas and targeting the regulation of ErbB2 degradation by the c-Cbl-regulated proteolytic pathway is one potential therapeutic strategy. Phosphorylation of the kinase domain residue Tyr877 of ErbB2 (homologous to Tyr416 of pp60c-Src) may be involved in regulating ErbB2 biological activity. The major autophosphorylation sites in ErbB2 are Tyr1248 and Tyr1221/1222; phosphorylation of these sites couples ErbB2 to the Ras-Raf-MAP kinase signal transduction pathway (1,5).

$499
96 assays
1 Kit
The FastScan™ Phospho-p70 S6 Kinase (Thr389) ELISA Kit is a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of phospho-p70 S6 Kinase (Thr389). To perform the assay, sample is incubated with a capture antibody conjugated with a proprietary tag and a second detection antibody linked to HRP, forming a sandwich with phospho-p70 S6 Kinase (Thr389) in solution. This entire complex is immobilized to the plate via an anti-tag antibody. The wells are then washed to remove unbound material. TMB is then added. The magnitude of observed signal is proportional to the quantity of phospho-p70 S6 Kinase (Thr389). Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Background: p70 S6 kinase is a mitogen activated Ser/Thr protein kinase that is required for cell growth and G1 cell cycle progression (1,2). p70 S6 kinase phosphorylates the S6 protein of the 40S ribosomal subunit and is involved in translational control of 5' oligopyrimidine tract mRNAs (1). A second isoform, p85 S6 kinase, is derived from the same gene and is identical to p70 S6 kinase except for 23 extra residues at the amino terminus, which encode a nuclear localizing signal (1). Both isoforms lie on a mitogen activated signaling pathway downstream of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI-3K) and the target of rapamycin, FRAP/mTOR, a pathway distinct from the Ras/MAP kinase cascade (1). The activity of p70 S6 kinase is controlled by multiple phosphorylation events located within the catalytic, linker and pseudosubstrate domains (1). Phosphorylation of Thr229 in the catalytic domain and Thr389 in the linker domain are most critical for kinase function (1). Phosphorylation of Thr389, however, most closely correlates with p70 kinase activity in vivo (3). Prior phosphorylation of Thr389 is required for the action of phosphoinositide 3-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) on Thr229 (4,5). Phosphorylation of this site is stimulated by growth factors such as insulin, EGF and FGF, as well as by serum and some G-protein-coupled receptor ligands, and is blocked by wortmannin, LY294002 (PI-3K inhibitor) and rapamycin (FRAP/mTOR inhibitor) (1,6,7). Ser411, Thr421 and Ser424 lie within a Ser-Pro-rich region located in the pseudosubstrate region (1). Phosphorylation at these sites is thought to activate p70 S6 kinase via relief of pseudosubstrate suppression (1,2). Another LY294002 and rapamycin sensitive phosphorylation site, Ser371, is an in vitro substrate for mTOR and correlates well with the activity of a partially rapamycin resistant mutant p70 S6 kinase (8).

$499
96 assays
1 Kit
The FastScan™ Phospho-Akt1 (Ser473) ELISA Kit is a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of Akt1 when phosphorylated at Ser473. To perform the assay, sample is incubated with a capture antibody conjugated with a proprietary tag and a second detection antibody linked to HRP, forming a sandwich with phospho-Akt1 (Ser473) in solution. This entire complex is immobilized to the plate via an anti-tag antibody. The wells are then washed to remove unbound material. TMB is then added. The magnitude of observed signal is proportional to the quantity of phospho-Akt1 (Ser473). Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Background: Akt, also referred to as PKB or Rac, plays a critical role in controlling survival and apoptosis (1-3). This protein kinase is activated by insulin and various growth and survival factors to function in a wortmannin-sensitive pathway involving PI3 kinase (2,3). Akt is activated by phospholipid binding and activation loop phosphorylation at Thr308 by PDK1 (4) and by phosphorylation within the carboxy terminus at Ser473. The previously elusive PDK2 responsible for phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 has been identified as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in a rapamycin-insensitive complex with rictor and Sin1 (5,6). Akt promotes cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis through phosphorylation and inactivation of several targets, including Bad (7), forkhead transcription factors (8), c-Raf (9), and caspase-9. PTEN phosphatase is a major negative regulator of the PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway (10). LY294002 is a specific PI3 kinase inhibitor (11). Another essential Akt function is the regulation of glycogen synthesis through phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3α and β (12,13). Akt may also play a role in insulin stimulation of glucose transport (12). In addition to its role in survival and glycogen synthesis, Akt is involved in cell cycle regulation by preventing GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of cyclin D1 (14) and by negatively regulating the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p27 Kip1 (15) and p21 Waf1/Cip1 (16). Akt also plays a critical role in cell growth by directly phosphorylating mTOR in a rapamycin-sensitive complex containing raptor (17). More importantly, Akt phosphorylates and inactivates tuberin (TSC2), an inhibitor of mTOR within the mTOR-raptor complex (18,19).

$499
96 assays
1 Kit
The FastScan™ Phospho-Akt (Thr308) ELISA Kit is a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of Akt when phosphorylated at Thr308. To perform the assay, sample is incubated with a capture antibody conjugated with a proprietary tag and a second detection antibody linked to HRP, forming a sandwich with phospho-Akt (Thr308) in solution. This entire complex is immobilized to the plate via an anti-tag antibody. The wells are then washed to remove unbound material. TMB is then added. The magnitude of observed signal is proportional to the quantity of phospho-Akt (Thr308). Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Background: Akt, also referred to as PKB or Rac, plays a critical role in controlling survival and apoptosis (1-3). This protein kinase is activated by insulin and various growth and survival factors to function in a wortmannin-sensitive pathway involving PI3 kinase (2,3). Akt is activated by phospholipid binding and activation loop phosphorylation at Thr308 by PDK1 (4) and by phosphorylation within the carboxy terminus at Ser473. The previously elusive PDK2 responsible for phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 has been identified as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in a rapamycin-insensitive complex with rictor and Sin1 (5,6). Akt promotes cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis through phosphorylation and inactivation of several targets, including Bad (7), forkhead transcription factors (8), c-Raf (9), and caspase-9. PTEN phosphatase is a major negative regulator of the PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway (10). LY294002 is a specific PI3 kinase inhibitor (11). Another essential Akt function is the regulation of glycogen synthesis through phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3α and β (12,13). Akt may also play a role in insulin stimulation of glucose transport (12). In addition to its role in survival and glycogen synthesis, Akt is involved in cell cycle regulation by preventing GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of cyclin D1 (14) and by negatively regulating the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p27 Kip1 (15) and p21 Waf1/Cip1 (16). Akt also plays a critical role in cell growth by directly phosphorylating mTOR in a rapamycin-sensitive complex containing raptor (17). More importantly, Akt phosphorylates and inactivates tuberin (TSC2), an inhibitor of mTOR within the mTOR-raptor complex (18,19).

$499
96 assays
1 Kit
The FastScan™ Phospho-Akt (Ser473) ELISA Kit is a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of Akt when phosphorylated at Ser473. To perform the assay, sample is incubated with a capture antibody conjugated with a proprietary tag and a second detection antibody linked to HRP, forming a sandwich with phospho-Akt (Ser473) in solution. This entire complex is immobilized to the plate via an anti-tag antibody. The wells are then washed to remove unbound material. TMB is then added. The magnitude of observed signal is proportional to the quantity of phospho-Akt (Ser473). Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Background: Akt, also referred to as PKB or Rac, plays a critical role in controlling survival and apoptosis (1-3). This protein kinase is activated by insulin and various growth and survival factors to function in a wortmannin-sensitive pathway involving PI3 kinase (2,3). Akt is activated by phospholipid binding and activation loop phosphorylation at Thr308 by PDK1 (4) and by phosphorylation within the carboxy terminus at Ser473. The previously elusive PDK2 responsible for phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 has been identified as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in a rapamycin-insensitive complex with rictor and Sin1 (5,6). Akt promotes cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis through phosphorylation and inactivation of several targets, including Bad (7), forkhead transcription factors (8), c-Raf (9), and caspase-9. PTEN phosphatase is a major negative regulator of the PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway (10). LY294002 is a specific PI3 kinase inhibitor (11). Another essential Akt function is the regulation of glycogen synthesis through phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3α and β (12,13). Akt may also play a role in insulin stimulation of glucose transport (12). In addition to its role in survival and glycogen synthesis, Akt is involved in cell cycle regulation by preventing GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of cyclin D1 (14) and by negatively regulating the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p27 Kip1 (15) and p21 Waf1/Cip1 (16). Akt also plays a critical role in cell growth by directly phosphorylating mTOR in a rapamycin-sensitive complex containing raptor (17). More importantly, Akt phosphorylates and inactivates tuberin (TSC2), an inhibitor of mTOR within the mTOR-raptor complex (18,19).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
CST's PathScan® Total Bad Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of total Bad protein. A Bad Rabbit mAb has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, Bad protein (phospho and nonphospho) is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, a Bad Mouse mAb is added to detect the captured Bad protein. Anti-mouse IgG, HRP-linked Antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of total Bad protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Background: Bad is a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family that promotes cell death by displacing Bax from binding to Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL (1,2). Survival factors, such as IL-3, inhibit the apoptotic activity of Bad by activating intracellular signaling pathways that result in the phosphorylation of Bad at Ser112 and Ser136 (2). Phosphorylation at these sites promotes binding of Bad to 14-3-3 proteins to prevent an association between Bad with Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL (2). Akt phosphorylates Bad at Ser136 to promote cell survival (3,4). Bad is phosphorylated at Ser112 both in vivo and in vitro by p90RSK (5,6) and mitochondria-anchored PKA (7). Phosphorylation at Ser155 in the BH3 domain by PKA plays a critical role in blocking the dimerization of Bad and Bcl-xL (8-10).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
CST's PathScan® Total p53 Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of total p53 protein. A p53 Rabbit mAb has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, Both nonphospho- and phospho-p53 proteins are captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, a p53 Mouse mAb is added to detect the captured p53 protein. Anti-Mouse IgG, HRP-linked Antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of optical density for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of total p53 protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: The p53 tumor suppressor protein plays a major role in cellular response to DNA damage and other genomic aberrations. Activation of p53 can lead to either cell cycle arrest and DNA repair or apoptosis (1). p53 is phosphorylated at multiple sites in vivo and by several different protein kinases in vitro (2,3). DNA damage induces phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15 and Ser20 and leads to a reduced interaction between p53 and its negative regulator, the oncoprotein MDM2 (4). MDM2 inhibits p53 accumulation by targeting it for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation (5,6). p53 can be phosphorylated by ATM, ATR, and DNA-PK at Ser15 and Ser37. Phosphorylation impairs the ability of MDM2 to bind p53, promoting both the accumulation and activation of p53 in response to DNA damage (4,7). Chk2 and Chk1 can phosphorylate p53 at Ser20, enhancing its tetramerization, stability, and activity (8,9). p53 is phosphorylated at Ser392 in vivo (10,11) and by CAK in vitro (11). Phosphorylation of p53 at Ser392 is increased in human tumors (12) and has been reported to influence the growth suppressor function, DNA binding, and transcriptional activation of p53 (10,13,14). p53 is phosphorylated at Ser6 and Ser9 by CK1δ and CK1ε both in vitro and in vivo (13,15). Phosphorylation of p53 at Ser46 regulates the ability of p53 to induce apoptosis (16). Acetylation of p53 is mediated by p300 and CBP acetyltransferases. Inhibition of deacetylation suppressing MDM2 from recruiting HDAC1 complex by p19 (ARF) stabilizes p53. Acetylation appears to play a positive role in the accumulation of p53 protein in stress response (17). Following DNA damage, human p53 becomes acetylated at Lys382 (Lys379 in mouse) in vivo to enhance p53-DNA binding (18). Deacetylation of p53 occurs through interaction with the SIRT1 protein, a deacetylase that may be involved in cellular aging and the DNA damage response (19).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Phospho-HER2/ErbB2 (panTyr) Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of tyrosine-phosphorylated HER2/ErbB2 protein. A HER2/ErbB2 rabbit mAb has been coated on the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, HER2/ErbB2 protein (phospho and nonphospho) is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, a phospho-tyrosine mouse detection antibody is added to detect captured tyrosine-phosphorylated HER2/ErbB2 protein. Anti-mouse IgG, HRP-linked antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of the absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of HER2/ErbB2 protein phosphorylated on tyrosine.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: The ErbB2 (HER2) proto-oncogene encodes a 185 kDa transmembrane, receptor-like glycoprotein with intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity (1). While ErbB2 lacks an identified ligand, ErbB2 kinase activity can be activated in the absence of a ligand when overexpressed and through heteromeric associations with other ErbB family members (2). Amplification of the ErbB2 gene and overexpression of its product are detected in almost 40% of human breast cancers (3). Binding of the c-Cbl ubiquitin ligase to ErbB2 at Tyr1112 leads to ErbB2 poly-ubiquitination and enhances degradation of this kinase (4). ErbB2 is a key therapeutic target in the treatment of breast cancer and other carcinomas and targeting the regulation of ErbB2 degradation by the c-Cbl-regulated proteolytic pathway is one potential therapeutic strategy. Phosphorylation of the kinase domain residue Tyr877 of ErbB2 (homologous to Tyr416 of pp60c-Src) may be involved in regulating ErbB2 biological activity. The major autophosphorylation sites in ErbB2 are Tyr1248 and Tyr1221/1222; phosphorylation of these sites couples ErbB2 to the Ras-Raf-MAP kinase signal transduction pathway (1,5).

$499
96 assays
1 Kit
The FastScan™ Total Akt1 ELISA Kit is a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of Akt1. To perform the assay, sample is incubated with a capture antibody conjugated with a proprietary tag and a second detection antibody linked to HRP, forming a sandwich with Akt1 in solution. This entire complex is immobilized to the plate via an anti-tag antibody. The wells are then washed to remove unbound material. TMB is then added. The magnitude of observed signal is proportional to the quantity of Akt1. Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Background: Akt, also referred to as PKB or Rac, plays a critical role in controlling survival and apoptosis (1-3). This protein kinase is activated by insulin and various growth and survival factors to function in a wortmannin-sensitive pathway involving PI3 kinase (2,3). Akt is activated by phospholipid binding and activation loop phosphorylation at Thr308 by PDK1 (4) and by phosphorylation within the carboxy terminus at Ser473. The previously elusive PDK2 responsible for phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 has been identified as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in a rapamycin-insensitive complex with rictor and Sin1 (5,6). Akt promotes cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis through phosphorylation and inactivation of several targets, including Bad (7), forkhead transcription factors (8), c-Raf (9), and caspase-9. PTEN phosphatase is a major negative regulator of the PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway (10). LY294002 is a specific PI3 kinase inhibitor (11). Another essential Akt function is the regulation of glycogen synthesis through phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3α and β (12,13). Akt may also play a role in insulin stimulation of glucose transport (12). In addition to its role in survival and glycogen synthesis, Akt is involved in cell cycle regulation by preventing GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of cyclin D1 (14) and by negatively regulating the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p27 Kip1 (15) and p21 Waf1/Cip1 (16). Akt also plays a critical role in cell growth by directly phosphorylating mTOR in a rapamycin-sensitive complex containing raptor (17). More importantly, Akt phosphorylates and inactivates tuberin (TSC2), an inhibitor of mTOR within the mTOR-raptor complex (18,19).