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Human Epithelial Cell Proliferation

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2 (FRS2, also called Suc-associated neurotrophic factor-induced tyrosine-phosphorylated target or SNT) participates in the transmission of extracellular signals from the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR). Activation of the FGFR leads to tyrosine phosphorylation of FRS2 (1). Two FRS2 family members have been identified, FRS2-alpha (SNT1) and FRS2-beta (SNT2) (2), which are phosphorylated by these RTKs. Once they are phosphorylated, they recruit SH2 domain-containing proteins including Grb2 and SHP-2 (3,4), mediating downstream signaling. Tyr436 is required for efficient SHP-2 recruitment (5), whereas Tyr196 functions as a docking site for Grb2-Sos complexes (6).

$303
100 µl
$717
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2 (FRS2, also called Suc-associated neurotrophic factor-induced tyrosine-phosphorylated target or SNT) participates in the transmission of extracellular signals from the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR). Activation of the FGFR leads to tyrosine phosphorylation of FRS2 (1). Two FRS2 family members have been identified, FRS2-alpha (SNT1) and FRS2-beta (SNT2) (2), which are phosphorylated by these RTKs. Once they are phosphorylated, they recruit SH2 domain-containing proteins including Grb2 and SHP-2 (3,4), mediating downstream signaling. Tyr436 is required for efficient SHP-2 recruitment (5), whereas Tyr196 functions as a docking site for Grb2-Sos complexes (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily members are critical regulators of cell proliferation and differentiation, developmental patterning and morphogenesis, and disease pathogenesis (1-4). TGF-β elicits signaling through three cell surface receptors: type I (RI), type II (RII), and type III (RIII). Type I and type II receptors are serine/threonine kinases that form a heteromeric complex. In response to ligand binding, the type II receptors form a stable complex with the type I receptors allowing phosphorylation and activation of type I receptor kinases (5). The type III receptor, also known as betaglycan, is a transmembrane proteoglycan with a large extracellular domain that binds TGF-β with high affinity but lacks a cytoplasmic signaling domain (6,7). Expression of the type III receptor can regulate TGF-β signaling through presentation of the ligand to the signaling complex. The only known direct TGF-β signaling effectors are the Smad family proteins, which transduce signals from the cell surface directly to the nucleus to regulate target gene transcription (8,9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily members are critical regulators of cell proliferation and differentiation, developmental patterning and morphogenesis, and disease pathogenesis (1-4). TGF-β elicits signaling through three cell surface receptors: type I (RI), type II (RII), and type III (RIII). Type I and type II receptors are serine/threonine kinases that form a heteromeric complex. In response to ligand binding, the type II receptors form a stable complex with the type I receptors allowing phosphorylation and activation of type I receptor kinases (5). The type III receptor, also known as betaglycan, is a transmembrane proteoglycan with a large extracellular domain that binds TGF-β with high affinity but lacks a cytoplasmic signaling domain (6,7). Expression of the type III receptor can regulate TGF-β signaling through presentation of the ligand to the signaling complex. The only known direct TGF-β signaling effectors are the Smad family proteins, which transduce signals from the cell surface directly to the nucleus to regulate target gene transcription (8,9).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Phospho-FGFR2 (panTyr) Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of tyrosine-phosphorylated FGFR2 protein. An FGFR2 rabbit antibody has been coated on the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, FGFR2 protein (phospho and nonphospho) is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, a phospho-tyrosine mouse detection antibody is added to detect captured tyrosine-phosphorylated FGFR2 protein. Anti-mouse IgG, HRP-linked antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of the absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of tyrosine-phosphorylated FGFR2 protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) produce mitogenic and angiogenic effects in target cells by signaling through cell surface receptor tyrosine kinases. There are four members of the FGF receptor family: FGFR1 (flg), FGFR2 (bek, KGFR), FGFR3, and FGFR4. Each receptor contains an extracellular ligand binding domain, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic kinase domain (1). Following ligand binding and dimerization, the receptors are phosphorylated at specific tyrosine residues (2). Seven tyrosine residues in the cytoplasmic tail of FGFR1 can be phosphorylated: Tyr463, 583, 585, 653, 654, 730, and 766. Tyr653 and Tyr654 are important for catalytic activity of activated FGFR and are essential for signaling (3). The other phosphorylated tyrosine residues may provide docking sites for downstream signaling components such as Crk and PLCγ (4,5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) produce mitogenic and angiogenic effects in target cells by signaling through cell surface receptor tyrosine kinases. There are four members of the FGF receptor family: FGFR1 (flg), FGFR2 (bek, KGFR), FGFR3, and FGFR4. Each receptor contains an extracellular ligand binding domain, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic kinase domain (1). Following ligand binding and dimerization, the receptors are phosphorylated at specific tyrosine residues (2). Seven tyrosine residues in the cytoplasmic tail of FGFR1 can be phosphorylated: Tyr463, 583, 585, 653, 654, 730, and 766. Tyr653 and Tyr654 are important for catalytic activity of activated FGFR and are essential for signaling (3). The other phosphorylated tyrosine residues may provide docking sites for downstream signaling components such as Crk and PLCγ (4,5).

$269
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) produce mitogenic and angiogenic effects in target cells by signaling through cell surface receptor tyrosine kinases. There are four members of the FGF receptor family: FGFR1 (flg), FGFR2 (bek, KGFR), FGFR3, and FGFR4. Each receptor contains an extracellular ligand binding domain, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic kinase domain (1). Following ligand binding and dimerization, the receptors are phosphorylated at specific tyrosine residues (2). Seven tyrosine residues in the cytoplasmic tail of FGFR1 can be phosphorylated: Tyr463, 583, 585, 653, 654, 730, and 766. Tyr653 and Tyr654 are important for catalytic activity of activated FGFR and are essential for signaling (3). The other phosphorylated tyrosine residues may provide docking sites for downstream signaling components such as Crk and PLCγ (4,5).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Sox9 (D8G9H) Rabbit mAb #82630.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Sox9 is a transcription factor with an HMG-box DNA binding domain that has homology to the HMG domain of the mammalian testis-determining factor, SRY (1). Sox9 regulates several important processes during embryonic development including chondrogenesis, during which it contributes to skeletal formation and digit specification (2,3). Sox9 also coordinates with steroidogenic factor-1 to direct Sertoli cell-specific expression of anti-Mullerian hormone during embryogenesis, thereby contributing to male sex determination (4). In addition, Sox9 is reportedly involved in the maintenance of adult stem cell populations, including multipotent neural stem cells (5), hair follicle stem cells (6), and mammary stem cells (7). Recent interest has focused on the role of Sox9 in tumor biology. For example, research studies have shown that Sox9 expression in lung adenocarcinoma induces a mesenchymal phenotype in tumor cells (8). Other research studies have shown that YAP1 induced upregulation of Sox9 confers cancer stem cell like properties on esophageal cancer cells (9). Moreover, Sox9 expression has been linked with several other tumor types including ovarian, prostate, and pancreatic malignancies (10-12).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 647 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry and immunofluorescent analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Sox9 (D8G9H) Rabbit mAb #82630.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Background: Sox9 is a transcription factor with an HMG-box DNA binding domain that has homology to the HMG domain of the mammalian testis-determining factor, SRY (1). Sox9 regulates several important processes during embryonic development including chondrogenesis, during which it contributes to skeletal formation and digit specification (2,3). Sox9 also coordinates with steroidogenic factor-1 to direct Sertoli cell-specific expression of anti-Mullerian hormone during embryogenesis, thereby contributing to male sex determination (4). In addition, Sox9 is reportedly involved in the maintenance of adult stem cell populations, including multipotent neural stem cells (5), hair follicle stem cells (6), and mammary stem cells (7). Recent interest has focused on the role of Sox9 in tumor biology. For example, research studies have shown that Sox9 expression in lung adenocarcinoma induces a mesenchymal phenotype in tumor cells (8). Other research studies have shown that YAP1 induced upregulation of Sox9 confers cancer stem cell like properties on esophageal cancer cells (9). Moreover, Sox9 expression has been linked with several other tumor types including ovarian, prostate, and pancreatic malignancies (10-12).

$115
20 µl
$269
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Sox9 is a transcription factor with an HMG-box DNA binding domain that has homology to the HMG domain of the mammalian testis-determining factor, SRY (1). Sox9 regulates several important processes during embryonic development including chondrogenesis, during which it contributes to skeletal formation and digit specification (2,3). Sox9 also coordinates with steroidogenic factor-1 to direct Sertoli cell-specific expression of anti-Mullerian hormone during embryogenesis, thereby contributing to male sex determination (4). In addition, Sox9 is reportedly involved in the maintenance of adult stem cell populations, including multipotent neural stem cells (5), hair follicle stem cells (6), and mammary stem cells (7). Recent interest has focused on the role of Sox9 in tumor biology. For example, research studies have shown that Sox9 expression in lung adenocarcinoma induces a mesenchymal phenotype in tumor cells (8). Other research studies have shown that YAP1 induced upregulation of Sox9 confers cancer stem cell like properties on esophageal cancer cells (9). Moreover, Sox9 expression has been linked with several other tumor types including ovarian, prostate, and pancreatic malignancies (10-12).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry and immunofluorescent analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Sox9 (D8G8H) Rabbit mAb #82630.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Background: Sox9 is a transcription factor with an HMG-box DNA binding domain that has homology to the HMG domain of the mammalian testis-determining factor, SRY (1). Sox9 regulates several important processes during embryonic development including chondrogenesis, during which it contributes to skeletal formation and digit specification (2,3). Sox9 also coordinates with steroidogenic factor-1 to direct Sertoli cell-specific expression of anti-Mullerian hormone during embryogenesis, thereby contributing to male sex determination (4). In addition, Sox9 is reportedly involved in the maintenance of adult stem cell populations, including multipotent neural stem cells (5), hair follicle stem cells (6), and mammary stem cells (7). Recent interest has focused on the role of Sox9 in tumor biology. For example, research studies have shown that Sox9 expression in lung adenocarcinoma induces a mesenchymal phenotype in tumor cells (8). Other research studies have shown that YAP1 induced upregulation of Sox9 confers cancer stem cell like properties on esophageal cancer cells (9). Moreover, Sox9 expression has been linked with several other tumor types including ovarian, prostate, and pancreatic malignancies (10-12).

$305
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to biotin under optimal conditions. The biotinylated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Sox9 (D8G9H) Rabbit mAb #82630.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Sox9 is a transcription factor with an HMG-box DNA binding domain that has homology to the HMG domain of the mammalian testis-determining factor, SRY (1). Sox9 regulates several important processes during embryonic development including chondrogenesis, during which it contributes to skeletal formation and digit specification (2,3). Sox9 also coordinates with steroidogenic factor-1 to direct Sertoli cell-specific expression of anti-Mullerian hormone during embryogenesis, thereby contributing to male sex determination (4). In addition, Sox9 is reportedly involved in the maintenance of adult stem cell populations, including multipotent neural stem cells (5), hair follicle stem cells (6), and mammary stem cells (7). Recent interest has focused on the role of Sox9 in tumor biology. For example, research studies have shown that Sox9 expression in lung adenocarcinoma induces a mesenchymal phenotype in tumor cells (8). Other research studies have shown that YAP1 induced upregulation of Sox9 confers cancer stem cell like properties on esophageal cancer cells (9). Moreover, Sox9 expression has been linked with several other tumor types including ovarian, prostate, and pancreatic malignancies (10-12).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry and immunofluorescent analysis in human cells. The unconjugated antibody #4545 reacts with keratins 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 13 and 18 from human, rat and monkey. CST expects that Pan-Keratin (C11) Mouse mAb (Alexa Fluor® 488 Conjugate) will also recognize the same keratins in these species.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Background: Keratins (cytokeratins) are intermediate filament proteins that are mainly expressed in epithelial cells. Keratin heterodimers composed of an acidic keratin (or type I keratin, keratins 9 to 23) and a basic keratin (or type II keratin, keratins 1 to 8) assemble to form filaments (1,2). Keratin isoforms demonstrate tissue- and differentiation-specific profiles that make them useful as research biomarkers (1). Research studies have shown that mutations in keratin genes are associated with skin disorders, liver and pancreatic diseases, and inflammatory intestinal diseases (3-6).

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The NF-κB/Rel transcription factors are present in the cytosol in an inactive state, complexed with the inhibitory IκB proteins (1-3). Most agents that activate NF-κB do so through a common pathway based on phosphorylation-induced, proteasome-mediated degradation of IκB (3-7). The key regulatory step in this pathway involves activation of a high molecular weight IκB kinase (IKK) complex whose catalysis is generally carried out by three tightly associated IKK subunits. IKKα and IKKβ serve as the catalytic subunits of the kinase and IKKγ serves as the regulatory subunit (8,9). Activation of IKK depends upon phosphorylation at Ser177 and Ser181 in the activation loop of IKKβ (Ser176 and Ser180 in IKKα), which causes conformational changes, resulting in kinase activation (10-13).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 555 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for immunofluroescent analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Pan-Keratin (C11) Mouse mAb #4545.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Background: Keratins (cytokeratins) are intermediate filament proteins that are mainly expressed in epithelial cells. Keratin heterodimers composed of an acidic keratin (or type I keratin, keratins 9 to 23) and a basic keratin (or type II keratin, keratins 1 to 8) assemble to form filaments (1,2). Keratin isoforms demonstrate tissue- and differentiation-specific profiles that make them useful as research biomarkers (1). Research studies have shown that mutations in keratin genes are associated with skin disorders, liver and pancreatic diseases, and inflammatory intestinal diseases (3-6).

$305
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology (CST) antibody is conjugated to biotin under optimal conditions. The unconjugated Pan-Keratin (C11) Mouse mAb #4545 reacts with human, rat and monkey pan-keratin. CST expects that Pan-Keratin (C11) Mouse mAb (Biotinylated) will also recognize pan-keratin in these species.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Keratins (cytokeratins) are intermediate filament proteins that are mainly expressed in epithelial cells. Keratin heterodimers composed of an acidic keratin (or type I keratin, keratins 9 to 23) and a basic keratin (or type II keratin, keratins 1 to 8) assemble to form filaments (1,2). Keratin isoforms demonstrate tissue- and differentiation-specific profiles that make them useful as research biomarkers (1). Research studies have shown that mutations in keratin genes are associated with skin disorders, liver and pancreatic diseases, and inflammatory intestinal diseases (3-6).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 647 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry and immunofluorescent analysis in human cells. The unconjugated antibody #4545 reacts with keratins 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 13 and 18 from human, rat and monkey. CST expects that Pan-Keratin (C11) Mouse mAb (Alexa Fluor® 647 Conjugate) will also recognize the same keratins in these species.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunofluorescence (Paraffin)

Background: Keratins (cytokeratins) are intermediate filament proteins that are mainly expressed in epithelial cells. Keratin heterodimers composed of an acidic keratin (or type I keratin, keratins 9 to 23) and a basic keratin (or type II keratin, keratins 1 to 8) assemble to form filaments (1,2). Keratin isoforms demonstrate tissue- and differentiation-specific profiles that make them useful as research biomarkers (1). Research studies have shown that mutations in keratin genes are associated with skin disorders, liver and pancreatic diseases, and inflammatory intestinal diseases (3-6).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunofluorescence (Paraffin), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Keratins (cytokeratins) are intermediate filament proteins that are mainly expressed in epithelial cells. Keratin heterodimers composed of an acidic keratin (or type I keratin, keratins 9 to 23) and a basic keratin (or type II keratin, keratins 1 to 8) assemble to form filaments (1,2). Keratin isoforms demonstrate tissue- and differentiation-specific profiles that make them useful as research biomarkers (1). Research studies have shown that mutations in keratin genes are associated with skin disorders, liver and pancreatic diseases, and inflammatory intestinal diseases (3-6).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Pan-Keratin (C11) Mouse mAb #4545.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Keratins (cytokeratins) are intermediate filament proteins that are mainly expressed in epithelial cells. Keratin heterodimers composed of an acidic keratin (or type I keratin, keratins 9 to 23) and a basic keratin (or type II keratin, keratins 1 to 8) assemble to form filaments (1,2). Keratin isoforms demonstrate tissue- and differentiation-specific profiles that make them useful as research biomarkers (1). Research studies have shown that mutations in keratin genes are associated with skin disorders, liver and pancreatic diseases, and inflammatory intestinal diseases (3-6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Sine oculis homeobox (SIX) proteins belong to a family of evolutionarily conserved transcription factors discovered in Drosophila mutant screens for embryonic eye development genes (1-3). The prototypical family member (sine oculis, so) was named for eyeless embryos carrying mutations in a gene highly conserved among vertebrates, including humans (SIX1) (4). A total of six family members (SIX1-6) have been identified in vertebrates. Each SIX protein contains a homeobox nucleic acid recognition domain (HD) with a DNA-binding helix-turn-helix motif and an adjacent SIX domain, which may be involved in regulating protein-protein interactions (5). In addition to their critical functions during embryonic organogenesis, research studies suggest that SIX proteins play additional roles in postnatal cell cycle regulation, with potentially important implications in tumorigenesis (6,7).