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Human Mrna Transcription

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: DDX5 (DEAD box polypeptide 5), also known as p68, was first identified as a 68 kDa nuclear protein with similarity to translation initiation factor eIF-4A (1). DDX5 is a member of the DEAD box family of putative RNA helicases, defined by the presence of a conserved DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) motif that appears to function primarily in the regulation of RNA secondary structure. DDX5 exhibits ATP-dependent RNA helicase activity (2) and has been identified as a critical subunit of the DROSHA complex that regulates miRNA and rRNA processing (3,4). DDX may also regulate mRNA splicing (5) and has been shown to interact with HDAC1, where it can regulate promoter-specific transcription (6). DDX5 interacts with a diverse group of proteins, including Runx2, p53, Smad3, CBP, and p300 (7-10), suggesting an important role for DDX5 in a multitude of developmental processes. Notably, DDX5 may be involved in growth factor-induced epithelial mesechymal transition (EMT). Phosphorylation of DDX5 at Tyr593 following PDGF stimulation was shown to displace Axin from β-catenin; this prevented phosphorylation of β-catenin by GSK-3β, leading to Wnt-independent nuclear translocation of β-catenin (11) and increased transcription of c-Myc, cyclin D1, and Snai1 (12,13).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® DDX5 siRNA II from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit DDX5 expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: DDX5 (DEAD box polypeptide 5), also known as p68, was first identified as a 68 kDa nuclear protein with similarity to translation initiation factor eIF-4A (1). DDX5 is a member of the DEAD box family of putative RNA helicases, defined by the presence of a conserved DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) motif that appears to function primarily in the regulation of RNA secondary structure. DDX5 exhibits ATP-dependent RNA helicase activity (2) and has been identified as a critical subunit of the DROSHA complex that regulates miRNA and rRNA processing (3,4). DDX may also regulate mRNA splicing (5) and has been shown to interact with HDAC1, where it can regulate promoter-specific transcription (6). DDX5 interacts with a diverse group of proteins, including Runx2, p53, Smad3, CBP, and p300 (7-10), suggesting an important role for DDX5 in a multitude of developmental processes. Notably, DDX5 may be involved in growth factor-induced epithelial mesechymal transition (EMT). Phosphorylation of DDX5 at Tyr593 following PDGF stimulation was shown to displace Axin from β-catenin; this prevented phosphorylation of β-catenin by GSK-3β, leading to Wnt-independent nuclear translocation of β-catenin (11) and increased transcription of c-Myc, cyclin D1, and Snai1 (12,13).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: DDX5 (DEAD box polypeptide 5), also known as p68, was first identified as a 68 kDa nuclear protein with similarity to translation initiation factor eIF-4A (1). DDX5 is a member of the DEAD box family of putative RNA helicases, defined by the presence of a conserved DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) motif that appears to function primarily in the regulation of RNA secondary structure. DDX5 exhibits ATP-dependent RNA helicase activity (2) and has been identified as a critical subunit of the DROSHA complex that regulates miRNA and rRNA processing (3,4). DDX may also regulate mRNA splicing (5) and has been shown to interact with HDAC1, where it can regulate promoter-specific transcription (6). DDX5 interacts with a diverse group of proteins, including Runx2, p53, Smad3, CBP, and p300 (7-10), suggesting an important role for DDX5 in a multitude of developmental processes. Notably, DDX5 may be involved in growth factor-induced epithelial mesechymal transition (EMT). Phosphorylation of DDX5 at Tyr593 following PDGF stimulation was shown to displace Axin from β-catenin; this prevented phosphorylation of β-catenin by GSK-3β, leading to Wnt-independent nuclear translocation of β-catenin (11) and increased transcription of c-Myc, cyclin D1, and Snai1 (12,13).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Oct-4 (POU5F1) is a transcription factor highly expressed in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells and embryonic germ cells (1). A network of key factors that includes Oct-4, Nanog, and Sox2 is necessary for the maintenance of pluripotent potential, and downregulation of Oct-4 has been shown to trigger cell differentiation (2,3). Research studies have demonstrated that Oct-4 is a useful germ cell tumor marker (4). Oct-4 exists as two splice variants, Oct-4A and Oct-4B (5). Recent studies have suggested that the Oct-4A isoform has the ability to confer and sustain pluripotency, while Oct-4B may exist in some somatic, non-pluripotent cells (6,7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Oct-4 (POU5F1) is a transcription factor highly expressed in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells and embryonic germ cells (1). A network of key factors that includes Oct-4, Nanog, and Sox2 is necessary for the maintenance of pluripotent potential, and downregulation of Oct-4 has been shown to trigger cell differentiation (2,3). Research studies have demonstrated that Oct-4 is a useful germ cell tumor marker (4). Oct-4 exists as two splice variants, Oct-4A and Oct-4B (5). Recent studies have suggested that the Oct-4A isoform has the ability to confer and sustain pluripotency, while Oct-4B may exist in some somatic, non-pluripotent cells (6,7).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: Oct-4 (POU5F1) is a transcription factor highly expressed in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells and embryonic germ cells (1). A network of key factors that includes Oct-4, Nanog, and Sox2 is necessary for the maintenance of pluripotent potential, and downregulation of Oct-4 has been shown to trigger cell differentiation (2,3). Research studies have demonstrated that Oct-4 is a useful germ cell tumor marker (4). Oct-4 exists as two splice variants, Oct-4A and Oct-4B (5). Recent studies have suggested that the Oct-4A isoform has the ability to confer and sustain pluripotency, while Oct-4B may exist in some somatic, non-pluripotent cells (6,7).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: CHOP was identified as a C/EBP-homologous protein that inhibits C/EBP and LAP in a dominant-negative manner (1). CHOP expression is induced by certain cellular stresses including starvation and the induced CHOP suppresses cell cycle progression from G1 to S phase (2). Later it was shown that, during ER stress, the level of CHOP expression is elevated and CHOP functions to mediate programmed cell death (3). Studies also found that CHOP mediates the activation of GADD34 and Ero1-Lα expression during ER stress. GADD34 in turn dephosphorylates phospho-Ser51 of eIF2α thereby stimulating protein synthesis. Ero1-Lα promotes oxidative stress inside the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (4). The role of CHOP in the programmed cell death of ER-stressed cells is correlated with its role promoting protein synthesis and oxidative stress inside the ER (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1) is a heterodimeric transcription factor that plays a critical role in the cellular response to hypoxia (1). The HIF1 complex consists of two subunits, HIF-1α and HIF-1β, which are basic helix-loop-helix proteins of the PAS (Per, ARNT, Sim) family (2). HIF1 regulates the transcription of a broad range of genes that facilitate responses to the hypoxic environment, including genes regulating angiogenesis, erythropoiesis, cell cycle, metabolism, and apoptosis. The widely expressed HIF-1α is typically degraded rapidly in normoxic cells by the ubiquitin/proteasomal pathway. Under normoxic conditions, HIF-1α is proline hydroxylated leading to a conformational change that promotes binding to the von Hippel Lindau protein (VHL) E3 ligase complex; ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation follows (3,4). Both hypoxic conditions and chemical hydroxylase inhibitors (such as desferrioxamine and cobalt) inhibit HIF-1α degradation and lead to its stabilization. In addition, HIF-1α can be induced in an oxygen-independent manner by various cytokines through the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway (5-7).HIF-1β is also known as AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) due to its ability to partner with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) to form a heterodimeric transcription factor complex (8). Together with AhR, HIF-1β plays an important role in xenobiotics metabolism (8). In addition, a chromosomal translocation leading to a TEL-ARNT fusion protein is associated with acute myeloblastic leukemia (9). Studies also found that ARNT/HIF-1β expression levels decrease significantly in pancreatic islets from patients with type 2 diabetes, suggesting that HIF-1β plays an important role in pancreatic β-cell function (10).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Oct-4 (POU5F1) is a transcription factor highly expressed in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells and embryonic germ cells (1). A network of key factors that includes Oct-4, Nanog, and Sox2 is necessary for the maintenance of pluripotent potential, and downregulation of Oct-4 has been shown to trigger cell differentiation (2,3). Research studies have demonstrated that Oct-4 is a useful germ cell tumor marker (4). Oct-4 exists as two splice variants, Oct-4A and Oct-4B (5). Recent studies have suggested that the Oct-4A isoform has the ability to confer and sustain pluripotency, while Oct-4B may exist in some somatic, non-pluripotent cells (6,7).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: All organisms respond to increased temperatures and other environmental stresses by rapidly inducing the expression of highly conserved heat shock proteins (HSPs) that serve as molecular chaperones to refold denatured proteins and promote the degradation of damaged proteins. Heat shock gene transcription is regulated by a family of heat shock factors (HSFs), transcriptional activators that bind to heat shock response elements (HSEs) located upstream of all heat shock genes (1). HSEs are highly conserved among organisms and contain multiple adjacent and inverse iterations of the pentanucleotide motif 5'-nGAAn-3'. HSFs are less conserved and share only 40% sequence identity. Vertebrate cells contain four HSF proteins: HSF1, 2 and 4 are ubiquitous, while HSF3 has only been characterized in avian species. HSF1 induces heat shock gene transcription in response to heat, heavy metals, and oxidative agents, while HSF2 is involved in spermatogenesis and erythroid cell development. HSF3 and HSF4 show overlapping functions with HSF1 and HSF2. The inactive form of HSF1 exists as a monomer that localizes to both the cytoplasm and nucleus, but does not bind DNA (1,2). In response to stress, HSF1 becomes phosphorylated, forms homotrimers, binds DNA and activates heat shock gene transcription (1,2). HSF1 activity is positively regulated by phosphorylation of Ser419 by PLK1, which enhances nuclear translocation, and phosphorylation of Ser230 by CaMKII, which enhances transactivation (3,4). Alternatively, HSF1 activity is repressed by phosphorylation of serines at 303 and 307 by GSK3 and ERK1, respectively, which leads to binding of 14-3-3 protein and sequestration of HSF1 in the cytoplasm (5,6). In addition, during attenuation from the heat shock response, HSF1 is repressed by direct binding of Hsp70, HSP40/Hdj-1, and HSF binding protein 1 (HSBP1) (7).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 555 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for immunofluorescent analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Oct-4A (C30A3) Rabbit mAb #2840.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Background: Oct-4 (POU5F1) is a transcription factor highly expressed in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells and embryonic germ cells (1). A network of key factors that includes Oct-4, Nanog, and Sox2 is necessary for the maintenance of pluripotent potential, and downregulation of Oct-4 has been shown to trigger cell differentiation (2,3). Research studies have demonstrated that Oct-4 is a useful germ cell tumor marker (4). Oct-4 exists as two splice variants, Oct-4A and Oct-4B (5). Recent studies have suggested that the Oct-4A isoform has the ability to confer and sustain pluripotency, while Oct-4B may exist in some somatic, non-pluripotent cells (6,7).

$260
100 µl
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Background: Oct-4 (POU5F1) is a transcription factor highly expressed in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells and embryonic germ cells (1). A network of key factors that includes Oct-4, Nanog, and Sox2 is necessary for the maintenance of pluripotent potential, and downregulation of Oct-4 has been shown to trigger cell differentiation (2,3). Research studies have demonstrated that Oct-4 is a useful germ cell tumor marker (4). Oct-4 exists as two splice variants, Oct-4A and Oct-4B (5). Recent studies have suggested that the Oct-4A isoform has the ability to confer and sustain pluripotency, while Oct-4B may exist in some somatic, non-pluripotent cells (6,7).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Total Oct-4A Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of Oct-4A. An Oct-4A Rabbit Antibody has been coated onto the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, Oct-4A protein is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, an Oct-4A Mouse Detection Antibody is added to detect the captured Oct-4A protein. Anti-mouse IgG, HRP-linked Antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate, TMB, is added to develop color. The magnitude of the absorbance for the developed color is proportional to the quantity of Oct-4A.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Oct-4 (POU5F1) is a transcription factor highly expressed in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells and embryonic germ cells (1). A network of key factors that includes Oct-4, Nanog, and Sox2 is necessary for the maintenance of pluripotent potential, and downregulation of Oct-4 has been shown to trigger cell differentiation (2,3). Research studies have demonstrated that Oct-4 is a useful germ cell tumor marker (4). Oct-4 exists as two splice variants, Oct-4A and Oct-4B (5). Recent studies have suggested that the Oct-4A isoform has the ability to confer and sustain pluripotency, while Oct-4B may exist in some somatic, non-pluripotent cells (6,7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The mediator complex consists of about 25-30 proteins and is thought to facilitate transcription activation by acting as a molecular bridge between the RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) machinery and transcription factors (1). Mediator is recruited to target genes by transcription factors and plays an essential role in the recruitment and stabilization of the RNAPII transcription complex at promoters, as well as the activation of transcription post RNAPII recruitment (1-5). The mediator complex also plays an important role in creating ‘chromatin loops’ that occur as a result of interactions between the transcription factor bound at distal enhancers and RNAPII bound at the proximal promoter, and works to sustain proper chromatin architecture during active transcription (6-8).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated HSF1 (D3L8I) Rabbit mAb #12972.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Dog, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: All organisms respond to increased temperatures and other environmental stresses by rapidly inducing the expression of highly conserved heat shock proteins (HSPs) that serve as molecular chaperones to refold denatured proteins and promote the degradation of damaged proteins. Heat shock gene transcription is regulated by a family of heat shock factors (HSFs), transcriptional activators that bind to heat shock response elements (HSEs) located upstream of all heat shock genes (1). HSEs are highly conserved among organisms and contain multiple adjacent and inverse iterations of the pentanucleotide motif 5'-nGAAn-3'. HSFs are less conserved and share only 40% sequence identity. Vertebrate cells contain four HSF proteins: HSF1, 2 and 4 are ubiquitous, while HSF3 has only been characterized in avian species. HSF1 induces heat shock gene transcription in response to heat, heavy metals, and oxidative agents, while HSF2 is involved in spermatogenesis and erythroid cell development. HSF3 and HSF4 show overlapping functions with HSF1 and HSF2. The inactive form of HSF1 exists as a monomer that localizes to both the cytoplasm and nucleus, but does not bind DNA (1,2). In response to stress, HSF1 becomes phosphorylated, forms homotrimers, binds DNA and activates heat shock gene transcription (1,2). HSF1 activity is positively regulated by phosphorylation of Ser419 by PLK1, which enhances nuclear translocation, and phosphorylation of Ser230 by CaMKII, which enhances transactivation (3,4). Alternatively, HSF1 activity is repressed by phosphorylation of serines at 303 and 307 by GSK3 and ERK1, respectively, which leads to binding of 14-3-3 protein and sequestration of HSF1 in the cytoplasm (5,6). In addition, during attenuation from the heat shock response, HSF1 is repressed by direct binding of Hsp70, HSP40/Hdj-1, and HSF binding protein 1 (HSBP1) (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: SRY-related high mobility group box (SOX) proteins comprise a large family of widely conserved transcription factors that play important roles in development. SOX proteins possess a high mobility group (HMG) motif that binds the DNA minor groove. SOX proteins do not directly mediate transcription, but require binding partners that regulate their ability to mediate transcription of target genes that control cell fate determination and development (reviewed in 1).Transcription factor Sox17 is a Sox family protein with an established role in endoderm specification during development (2). In addition, Sox17 plays essential roles in the maintenance of the hematopoietic stem cell pool (3) and for vascular morphogenesis during development (4,5). Sox17 negatively regulates oligodendrocyte precursor differentiation by antagonizing β-catenin signaling (6). Mutation in the corresponding Sox17 gene in humans is associated with a form of vesicoureteral reflux, a disorder characterized by congenital kidney and urinary tract defects (7).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated CHOP (L63F7) Mouse mAb #2895.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: CHOP was identified as a C/EBP-homologous protein that inhibits C/EBP and LAP in a dominant-negative manner (1). CHOP expression is induced by certain cellular stresses including starvation and the induced CHOP suppresses cell cycle progression from G1 to S phase (2). Later it was shown that, during ER stress, the level of CHOP expression is elevated and CHOP functions to mediate programmed cell death (3). Studies also found that CHOP mediates the activation of GADD34 and Ero1-Lα expression during ER stress. GADD34 in turn dephosphorylates phospho-Ser51 of eIF2α thereby stimulating protein synthesis. Ero1-Lα promotes oxidative stress inside the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (4). The role of CHOP in the programmed cell death of ER-stressed cells is correlated with its role promoting protein synthesis and oxidative stress inside the ER (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Oct-4 (POU5F1) is a transcription factor highly expressed in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells and embryonic germ cells (1). A network of key factors that includes Oct-4, Nanog, and Sox2 is necessary for the maintenance of pluripotent potential, and downregulation of Oct-4 has been shown to trigger cell differentiation (2,3). Research studies have demonstrated that Oct-4 is a useful germ cell tumor marker (4). Oct-4 exists as two splice variants, Oct-4A and Oct-4B (5). Recent studies have suggested that the Oct-4A isoform has the ability to confer and sustain pluripotency, while Oct-4B may exist in some somatic, non-pluripotent cells (6,7).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The serum response factor (SRF) is a 67 kDa phospho-protein that, together with auxiliary factors, modulates transcription of immediate early genes containing serum response elements at their promoters (1,2). SRF contains several phosphorylation sites (3), but functional consequences of phosphorylation have not been identified unequivocally. Several growth factor- and calcium-regulated kinases, such as p90RSK and CaM kinase IV, can phosphorylate SRF at Ser103 (4,5), and Ser103 of SRF is also a nuclear target for MAPKAP kinase 2 (6).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Filamins are a family of dimeric actin binding proteins that function as structural components of cell adhesion sites. They also serve as a scaffold for subcellular targeting of signaling molecules (1). The actin binding domain (α-actinin domain) located at the amino terminus is followed by as many as 24 tandem repeats of about 96 residues and the dimerization domain is located at the carboxy terminus. In addition to actin filaments, filamins associate with other structural and signaling molecules such as β-integrins, Rho/Rac/Cdc42, PKC and the insulin receptor, primarily through the carboxy-terminal dimerization domain (1-3). Filamin A, the most abundant, and filamin B are widely expressed isoforms, while filamin C is predominantly expressed in muscle (1). Filamin A is phosphorylated by PAK1 at Ser2152, which is required for PAK1-mediated actin cytoskeleton reorganization (4).