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Human Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Activity

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: TNF-α is an important cytokine produced by numerous cell types including neutrophils, activated lymphoctyes, macrophages and NK cells. It plays a critical role in inflammatory responses and in apoptosis (1). TNF-α exists as a membrane-anchored and soluble form, both of which show biological activity. Response to TNF-α is mediated through two receptors, TNF-R1, which is widely expressed, and TNF-R2, which is expressed mainly in immune and endothelial cells (2). Antagonists to TNF-α have been validated as therapeutic targets for rheumatoid arthritis and other immune disorders (3).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: TNF-α is an important cytokine produced by numerous cell types including neutrophils, activated lymphoctyes, macrophages and NK cells. It plays a critical role in inflammatory responses and in apoptosis (1). TNF-α exists as a membrane-anchored and soluble form, both of which show biological activity. Response to TNF-α is mediated through two receptors, TNF-R1, which is widely expressed, and TNF-R2, which is expressed mainly in immune and endothelial cells (2). Antagonists to TNF-α have been validated as therapeutic targets for rheumatoid arthritis and other immune disorders (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The tumor necrosis factor receptor family, which includes TNF-RI, Fas, DR3, DR4, DR5, and DR6, plays an important role in the regulation of apoptosis in various physiological systems (1,2). The receptors are activated by a family of cytokines that include TNF, FasL, and TRAIL. They are characterized by a highly conserved extracellular region containing cysteine-rich repeats and a conserved intracellular region of about 80 amino acids termed the death domain (DD). The DD is important for transducing the death signal by recruiting other DD containing adaptor proteins (FADD, TRADD, RIP) to the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC), resulting in activation of caspases.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The tumor necrosis factor receptor family, which includes TNF-RI, Fas, DR3, DR4, DR5, and DR6, plays an important role in the regulation of apoptosis in various physiological systems (1,2). The receptors are activated by a family of cytokines that include TNF, FasL, and TRAIL. They are characterized by a highly conserved extracellular region containing cysteine-rich repeats and a conserved intracellular region of about 80 amino acids termed the death domain (DD). The DD is important for transducing the death signal by recruiting other DD containing adaptor proteins (FADD, TRADD, RIP) to the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC), resulting in activation of caspases.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: OX40 (TNFRSF4, CD134) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily that regulates T cell activity and immune responses. The OX40 protein contains four cysteine rich domains, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tail containing a QEE motif (1,2). OX40 is primarily expressed on activated CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, while the OX40 ligand (OX40L, TNFSF4, CD252) is predominantly expressed on activated antigen presenting cells (3-7). The engagement of OX40 with OX40L leads to the recruitment of TNF receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) and results in the formation of a TCR-independent signaling complex. One component of this complex, PKCθ, activates the NF-κB pathway (2,8). OX40 signaling through Akt can also enhance TCR signaling directly (9). Research studies indicate that the OX40L-OX40 pathway is associated with inflammation and autoimmune diseases (10). Additional research studies show that OX40 agonists augment anti-tumor immunity in several cancer types (11,12).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: OX40 (TNFRSF4, CD134) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily that regulates T cell activity and immune responses. The OX40 protein contains four cysteine rich domains, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tail containing a QEE motif (1,2). OX40 is primarily expressed on activated CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, while the OX40 ligand (OX40L, TNFSF4, CD252) is predominantly expressed on activated antigen presenting cells (3-7). The engagement of OX40 with OX40L leads to the recruitment of TNF receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) and results in the formation of a TCR-independent signaling complex. One component of this complex, PKCθ, activates the NF-κB pathway (2,8). OX40 signaling through Akt can also enhance TCR signaling directly (9). Research studies indicate that the OX40L-OX40 pathway is associated with inflammation and autoimmune diseases (10). Additional research studies show that OX40 agonists augment anti-tumor immunity in several cancer types (11,12).

$210
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated OX40 (D1S6L) Rabbit mAb #15123.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Background: OX40 (TNFRSF4, CD134) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily that regulates T cell activity and immune responses. The OX40 protein contains four cysteine rich domains, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tail containing a QEE motif (1,2). OX40 is primarily expressed on activated CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, while the OX40 ligand (OX40L, TNFSF4, CD252) is predominantly expressed on activated antigen presenting cells (3-7). The engagement of OX40 with OX40L leads to the recruitment of TNF receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) and results in the formation of a TCR-independent signaling complex. One component of this complex, PKCθ, activates the NF-κB pathway (2,8). OX40 signaling through Akt can also enhance TCR signaling directly (9). Research studies indicate that the OX40L-OX40 pathway is associated with inflammation and autoimmune diseases (10). Additional research studies show that OX40 agonists augment anti-tumor immunity in several cancer types (11,12).

$210
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 647 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated OX40 (D1S6L) Rabbit mAb #15123.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Background: OX40 (TNFRSF4, CD134) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily that regulates T cell activity and immune responses. The OX40 protein contains four cysteine rich domains, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tail containing a QEE motif (1,2). OX40 is primarily expressed on activated CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, while the OX40 ligand (OX40L, TNFSF4, CD252) is predominantly expressed on activated antigen presenting cells (3-7). The engagement of OX40 with OX40L leads to the recruitment of TNF receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) and results in the formation of a TCR-independent signaling complex. One component of this complex, PKCθ, activates the NF-κB pathway (2,8). OX40 signaling through Akt can also enhance TCR signaling directly (9). Research studies indicate that the OX40L-OX40 pathway is associated with inflammation and autoimmune diseases (10). Additional research studies show that OX40 agonists augment anti-tumor immunity in several cancer types (11,12).

$210
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated OX40 (D1S6L) Rabbit mAb #15123.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: OX40 (TNFRSF4, CD134) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily that regulates T cell activity and immune responses. The OX40 protein contains four cysteine rich domains, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tail containing a QEE motif (1,2). OX40 is primarily expressed on activated CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, while the OX40 ligand (OX40L, TNFSF4, CD252) is predominantly expressed on activated antigen presenting cells (3-7). The engagement of OX40 with OX40L leads to the recruitment of TNF receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) and results in the formation of a TCR-independent signaling complex. One component of this complex, PKCθ, activates the NF-κB pathway (2,8). OX40 signaling through Akt can also enhance TCR signaling directly (9). Research studies indicate that the OX40L-OX40 pathway is associated with inflammation and autoimmune diseases (10). Additional research studies show that OX40 agonists augment anti-tumor immunity in several cancer types (11,12).

$129
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: IHC-Leica® Bond™, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: OX40 (TNFRSF4, CD134) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily that regulates T cell activity and immune responses. The OX40 protein contains four cysteine rich domains, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tail containing a QEE motif (1,2). OX40 is primarily expressed on activated CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, while the OX40 ligand (OX40L, TNFSF4, CD252) is predominantly expressed on activated antigen presenting cells (3-7). The engagement of OX40 with OX40L leads to the recruitment of TNF receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) and results in the formation of a TCR-independent signaling complex. One component of this complex, PKCθ, activates the NF-κB pathway (2,8). OX40 signaling through Akt can also enhance TCR signaling directly (9). Research studies indicate that the OX40L-OX40 pathway is associated with inflammation and autoimmune diseases (10). Additional research studies show that OX40 agonists augment anti-tumor immunity in several cancer types (11,12).

$269
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, IHC-Leica® Bond™, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: OX40 (TNFRSF4, CD134) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily that regulates T cell activity and immune responses. The OX40 protein contains four cysteine rich domains, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tail containing a QEE motif (1,2). OX40 is primarily expressed on activated CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, while the OX40 ligand (OX40L, TNFSF4, CD252) is predominantly expressed on activated antigen presenting cells (3-7). The engagement of OX40 with OX40L leads to the recruitment of TNF receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) and results in the formation of a TCR-independent signaling complex. One component of this complex, PKCθ, activates the NF-κB pathway (2,8). OX40 signaling through Akt can also enhance TCR signaling directly (9). Research studies indicate that the OX40L-OX40 pathway is associated with inflammation and autoimmune diseases (10). Additional research studies show that OX40 agonists augment anti-tumor immunity in several cancer types (11,12).

$115
20 µl
$269
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: IHC-Leica® Bond™, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: TNFRSF18, also known as glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor-receptor (TNFR)-related protein (GITR) and activation-inducible TNFR family receptor, encodes a type 1 membrane protein of the TNF-receptor superfamily (1). Three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported (2). GITR is an immune cell co-stimulatory receptor expressed constitutively at high levels on CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells (Tregs), at low levels on naive and memory T cells, and is induced upon T cell activation (3-5). Studies show GITR can also be induced on NK cells, macrophages, and DCs (3, 4, 6). Although GITR does not have intrinsic enzymatic activity, TNFSF18 (also known as GITRL) expressed on antigen presenting cells binds to GITR resulting in recruitment of TNFR-associated factor family members and activation of the NF-kappa-B pathway in T cells (7). GITR ligation has been shown to play a role in CD8+ T cell activation, cytoxicity, and memory T cell survival (8-10). In the thymus, GITR is thought to play a key role in dominant immunological self-tolerance through thymic Treg differentiation and expansion (11). Of note, GITR ligation inhibits Treg suppressive function (12-13) and promotes effector T cell resistance to Treg suppression (14-15). Due to the combined effects on both Treg suppression and effector cell activation, GITR represents a unique opportunity for immunotherapeutic intervention in cancer (16).

$269
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, IHC-Leica® Bond™, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: TNFRSF18, also known as glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor-receptor (TNFR)-related protein (GITR) and activation-inducible TNFR family receptor, encodes a type 1 membrane protein of the TNF-receptor superfamily (1). Three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported (2). GITR is an immune cell co-stimulatory receptor expressed constitutively at high levels on CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells (Tregs), at low levels on naive and memory T cells, and is induced upon T cell activation (3-5). Studies show GITR can also be induced on NK cells, macrophages, and DCs (3, 4, 6). Although GITR does not have intrinsic enzymatic activity, TNFSF18 (also known as GITRL) expressed on antigen presenting cells binds to GITR resulting in recruitment of TNFR-associated factor family members and activation of the NF-kappa-B pathway in T cells (7). GITR ligation has been shown to play a role in CD8+ T cell activation, cytoxicity, and memory T cell survival (8-10). In the thymus, GITR is thought to play a key role in dominant immunological self-tolerance through thymic Treg differentiation and expansion (11). Of note, GITR ligation inhibits Treg suppressive function (12-13) and promotes effector T cell resistance to Treg suppression (14-15). Due to the combined effects on both Treg suppression and effector cell activation, GITR represents a unique opportunity for immunotherapeutic intervention in cancer (16).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: RANK (receptor activator of NF-κB) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor subfamily that is activated by its ligand, RANKL (TRANCE/OPGL/ODF), to promote survival of dendritic cells and differentiation of osteoclasts (1-4). Although RANK is widely expressed, its cell surface expression may be more restricted to dendritic cells and foreskin fibroblasts (1). RANK contains a 383-amino acid intracellular domain that associates with specific members of the TRAF family to NF-κB and JNK activiation (1,5). RANKL/RANK signaling may also lead to survival signaling through activation of the Akt pathway and an upregulation of survival proteins, including Bcl-xL (2,6). RANK signaling has been implicated as a potential therapeutic to inhibit bone loss and arthritis (7,8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: CD70 is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein and a member of the tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily (TNFSF), also known as CD27L and TNFSF7. It is normally expressed on the medullary thymic epithelial cells. Its expression is induced on activated lymphoid cells (B cells, T cells, and NK cells) and dendritic cells. CD70 is a ligand for CD27, a co-stimulatory receptor that plays an important role in T cell activation and proliferation (1,2). CD70 overexpression has been reported in various tumors such as renal cell carcinoma, glioblastoma, and non-small cell lung carcinoma and it’s being actively pursued as a therapeutic target (3-6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: TWEAK (TNFSF12/Apo-3L) is a member of the TNF superfamily of cytokines that are typically involved in immune regulation, inflammation, and apoptosis (1,2). TWEAK mRNA is expressed in a variety of tissues and cell lines, with higher levels observed in the heart, brain, skeletal muscle and within the immune system (1). Like other family members TWEAK is a type II transmembrane protein that can also be proteolytically processed to form a soluble cytokine. Soluble TWEAK is a weak inducer of apoptosis in some cell lines (1). The receptor for TWEAK, known as TWEAKR or fibroblast growth factor inducible 14 (Fn14), is a relatively small member of the TNF receptor family (3). TWEAK signaling has been associated with apoptosis, proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, and inflammation (4). Recent studies have suggested some therapeutic potential of TWEAK and its receptor signaling in regards to autoimmunity, cancer, and vascular injury (5-8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: BAFF, a member of the TNF superfamily of proteins, is a homotrimeric transmembrane protein, which is cleaved to produce a soluble cytokine (1). BAFF may also further oligomerize into 60-mer structures (1). BAFF is expressed by monocytes, neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, activated T cells, and epithelial cells (1,2). BAFF plays a key role in B cell development, survival, and activation (1,3,4). BAFF binds to three distinct receptors, BAFF-R, TACI, and BCMA (1). These receptors are differentially expressed during B cell development and among B cell subsets (1,2,4). While BAFF-R and BCMA bind to the homotrimeric form of BAFF, TACI only binds to membrane bound or higher order BAFF structures (1). The BAFF/ BAFF-R interaction activates both canonical and non-canonical NF-κB pathways, PI3K/Akt, and mTOR (2,4). Activation of the noncanonical NF-κB pathway via BAFF-R is negatively regulated by TRAF3 (5). Research studies have shown that elevated levels of BAFF may exacerbate many autoimmune disorders, making it a potential therapeutic target (2).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), also referred to as Apo2 ligand, first identified based on its sequence homology to TNF and Fas/Apo ligand is a member of the TNF family of cytokines and either exists as a type II membrane or soluble protein (1,2). TRAIL induces apoptosis in a variety of transformed cell lines and plays a role in anti-tumor and anti-viral immune surveillance (3). TRAIL signals via binding with death receptors DR4 (TRAIL-R1) (4) and DR5 (TRAIL-R2) (5-8) which can trigger apoptosis as well as NF-κB activation (7,9). Death domains on these receptors leads to the recruitment of a death-induced signaling complex (DISC) leading to caspase-8 and subsequent caspase-3 activation. In addition, TRAIL binds with decoy receptors DcR1 (TRAIL-R3) (10-13) and DcR2 (TRAIL-R4, TRUNDD) (14-15) which lack the functional cytoplasmic death domain antagonizing TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) has also been identified as receptor capable of inhibiting TRAIL-induced apoptosis (16). The selectivity of soluble TRAIL at triggering apoptosis in transformed cells as compared to normal cells has led to its investigation as a potential cancer therapeutic (17-18).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: OX40 (TNFRSF4, CD134) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily that regulates T cell activity and immune responses. The OX40 protein contains four cysteine rich domains, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tail containing a QEE motif (1,2). OX40 is primarily expressed on activated CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, while the OX40 ligand (OX40L, TNFSF4, CD252) is predominantly expressed on activated antigen presenting cells (3-7). The engagement of OX40 with OX40L leads to the recruitment of TNF receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) and results in the formation of a TCR-independent signaling complex. One component of this complex, PKCθ, activates the NF-κB pathway (2,8). OX40 signaling through Akt can also enhance TCR signaling directly (9). Research studies indicate that the OX40L-OX40 pathway is associated with inflammation and autoimmune diseases (10). Additional research studies show that OX40 agonists augment anti-tumor immunity in several cancer types (11,12).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated TRAIL (C92B9) Rabbit mAb #3219.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), also referred to as Apo2 ligand, first identified based on its sequence homology to TNF and Fas/Apo ligand is a member of the TNF family of cytokines and either exists as a type II membrane or soluble protein (1,2). TRAIL induces apoptosis in a variety of transformed cell lines and plays a role in anti-tumor and anti-viral immune surveillance (3). TRAIL signals via binding with death receptors DR4 (TRAIL-R1) (4) and DR5 (TRAIL-R2) (5-8) which can trigger apoptosis as well as NF-κB activation (7,9). Death domains on these receptors leads to the recruitment of a death-induced signaling complex (DISC) leading to caspase-8 and subsequent caspase-3 activation. In addition, TRAIL binds with decoy receptors DcR1 (TRAIL-R3) (10-13) and DcR2 (TRAIL-R4, TRUNDD) (14-15) which lack the functional cytoplasmic death domain antagonizing TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) has also been identified as receptor capable of inhibiting TRAIL-induced apoptosis (16). The selectivity of soluble TRAIL at triggering apoptosis in transformed cells as compared to normal cells has led to its investigation as a potential cancer therapeutic (17-18).