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Monoclonal Antibody Chromatin Ip Regulation of Cell Differentiation

$293
100 µl
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Nanog is a homeodomain-containing transcription factor that is essential for the maintenance of pluripotency and self renewal in embryonic stem cells (1). Nanog expression is controlled by a network of factors including Sox2 and the key pluripotency regulator Oct-4 (1). Recent advances in somatic cell reprogramming have utilized viral expression of combinations of transcription factors including nanog, Oct-4, Sox2, KLF4, c-Myc, and LIN28 (2,3).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Chromatin IP-seq, Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The polycomb group (PcG) proteins contribute to the maintenance of cell identity, stem cell self-renewal, cell cycle regulation and oncogenesis by maintaining the silenced state of genes that promote cell lineage specification, cell death and cell-cycle arrest (1-4). PcG proteins exist in two complexes that cooperate to maintain long-term gene silencing through epigenetic chromatin modifications. The first complex, EED-EZH2, is recruited to genes by DNA-binding transcription factors and methylates histone H3 on Lys27. Methylation of Lys27 facilitates the recruitment of the second complex, PRC1, which ubiquitinylates histone H2A on Lys119 (5). Suppressor of Zeste 12 (SUZ12) is a component of the PRC2 complex, which together with Ezh2 and Eed is absolutely required for histone methyl-transferase activity (6). SUZ12 contains a C2H2 zinc finger domain similar to the zinc finger domains found in sequence-specific DNA binding proteins and may mediate the interaction between EZH2 and nucleosomes (6). SUZ12 is overexpressed in several human tumors, including tumors of the colon, breast and liver (7,8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Chromatin IP-seq, Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Embryonic stem cells (ESC) derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst are unique in their pluripotent capacity and potential for self-renewal (1). Research studies demonstrate that a set of transcription factors that includes Oct-4, Sox2, and Nanog forms a transcriptional network that maintains cells in a pluripotent state (2,3). Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that Sox2 and Oct-4 bind to thousands of gene regulatory sites, many of which regulate cell pluripotency and early embryonic development (4,5). siRNA knockdown of either Sox2 or Oct-4 results in loss of pluripotency (6). Induced overexpression of Oct-4 and Sox2, along with additional transcription factors Klf4 and c-Myc, can reprogram both mouse and human somatic cells to a pluripotent state (7,8). Additional evidence demonstrates that Sox2 is also present in adult multipotent progenitors that give rise to some adult epithelial tissues, including several glands, the glandular stomach, testes, and cervix. Sox2 is thought to regulate target gene expression important for survival and regeneration of these tissues (9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: JunB is a basic region, leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor belonging to the Jun family that includes c-Jun and JunD. Jun family members homodimerize or heterodimerize with Fos and ATF proteins to form a functional transcription factor AP-1 (activator protein 1), whose activity is regulated by a variety of physiological and pathological stimuli such as growth factors, infections, and stress signals (1-4). While JunB sometimes antagonizes c-Jun transcriptional activity, it may functionally substitute for c-Jun during development in mice (5-7). JunB regulates hematopoietic stem cell number and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (8,9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Chromatin IP-seq, Immunoprecipitation

Background: Nanog is a homeodomain-containing transcription factor that is essential for the maintenance of pluripotency and self renewal in embryonic stem cells (1). Nanog expression is controlled by a network of factors including Sox2 and the key pluripotency regulator Oct-4 (1). Recent advances in somatic cell reprogramming have utilized viral expression of combinations of transcription factors including nanog, Oct-4, Sox2, KLF4, c-Myc, and LIN28 (2,3).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
$630
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Chromatin IP-seq, Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: c-Jun is a member of the Jun family containing c-Jun, JunB, and JunD, and is a component of the transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1). AP-1 is composed of dimers of Fos, Jun, and ATF family members and binds to and activates transcription at TRE/AP-1 elements (reviewed in 1). Extracellular signals including growth factors, chemokines, and stress activate AP-1-dependent transcription. The transcriptional activity of c-Jun is regulated by phosphorylation at Ser63 and Ser73 through SAPK/JNK (reviewed in 2). Knock-out studies in mice have shown that c-Jun is essential for embryogenesis (3), and subsequent studies have demonstrated roles for c-Jun in various tissues and developmental processes including axon regeneration (4), liver regeneration (5), and T cell development (6). AP-1 regulated genes exert diverse biological functions including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, as well as transformation, invasion and metastasis, depending on cell type and context (7-9). Other target genes regulate survival, as well as hypoxia and angiogenesis (8,10). Research studies have implicated c-Jun as a promising therapeutic target for cancer, vascular remodeling, acute inflammation, and rheumatoid arthritis (11,12).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Chromatin IP-seq, Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) is a member of the RUNX family of transcription factors. It is involved in osteoblast differentiation and skeletal morphogenesis. RUNX2 regulates the transcription of various genes, including osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, and osteocalcin, via binding to the core site of the enhancers or promoters (1-3). RUNX2 is crucial for the maturation of osteoblasts and both intramembranous and endochondral ossification. Mutations in the corresponding RUNX2 gene have been associated with the bone development disorder cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) (4-6). RUNX2 is also abnormally expressed in various human cancers including prostate cancer and breast cancer. It plays an important role in migration, invasion, and bone metastasis of prostate and breast cancer cells (7-10).

$134
20 µl
$336
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Chromatin IP-seq, Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: c-Jun is a member of the Jun family containing c-Jun, JunB, and JunD, and is a component of the transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1). AP-1 is composed of dimers of Fos, Jun, and ATF family members and binds to and activates transcription at TRE/AP-1 elements (reviewed in 1). Extracellular signals including growth factors, chemokines, and stress activate AP-1-dependent transcription. The transcriptional activity of c-Jun is regulated by phosphorylation at Ser63 and Ser73 through SAPK/JNK (reviewed in 2). Knock-out studies in mice have shown that c-Jun is essential for embryogenesis (3), and subsequent studies have demonstrated roles for c-Jun in various tissues and developmental processes including axon regeneration (4), liver regeneration (5), and T cell development (6). AP-1 regulated genes exert diverse biological functions including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, as well as transformation, invasion and metastasis, depending on cell type and context (7-9). Other target genes regulate survival, as well as hypoxia and angiogenesis (8,10). Research studies have implicated c-Jun as a promising therapeutic target for cancer, vascular remodeling, acute inflammation, and rheumatoid arthritis (11,12).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: NeuroD is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors. These proteins function by forming heterodimers with E-proteins and binding to the canonical E-box sequence CANNTG (1,2). Neuronal activity results in CaMKII-mediated phosphorylation of NeuroD at Ser336, which is necessary for formation and growth of dendrites (3,4). NeuroD is also phosphorylated at Ser274 though the results are context dependent as phosphorylation by Erk stimulates NeuroD activity in pancreatic β-cells while phosphorylation by GSK-3β inhibits NeuroD in neurons (3). NeuroD is crucially important in both the pancreas and developing nervous system, and plays a large role in the development of the inner ear and mammalian retina (3). Mice lacking NeuroD become severely diabetic and die shortly after birth due to defects in β-cell differentiation (2,3,5,6). The lack of NeuroD in the brain results in severe defects in development (5). Human mutations have been linked to a number of types of diabetes including type I diabetes mellitus and maturity-onset diabetes of the young (1,3).

$293
100 µl
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Embryonic stem cells (ESC) derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst are unique in their pluripotent capacity and potential for self-renewal (1). Research studies demonstrate that a set of transcription factors that includes Oct-4, Sox2, and Nanog forms a transcriptional network that maintains cells in a pluripotent state (2,3). Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that Sox2 and Oct-4 bind to thousands of gene regulatory sites, many of which regulate cell pluripotency and early embryonic development (4,5). siRNA knockdown of either Sox2 or Oct-4 results in loss of pluripotency (6). Induced overexpression of Oct-4 and Sox2, along with additional transcription factors Klf4 and c-Myc, can reprogram both mouse and human somatic cells to a pluripotent state (7,8). Additional evidence demonstrates that Sox2 is also present in adult multipotent progenitors that give rise to some adult epithelial tissues, including several glands, the glandular stomach, testes, and cervix. Sox2 is thought to regulate target gene expression important for survival and regeneration of these tissues (9).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: RBPSUH (Recombining Binding Protein, SUppressor of Hairless), also termed RBP-J or CSL, is the DNA-binding component of the transcription complex regulated by canonical Notch signaling. In the absence of Notch activation, RBPSUH suppresses target gene expression through interactions with a co-repressor complex containing histone deacetylase. Upon activation of Notch receptors, the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) translocates to the nucleus and binds to RBPSUH. This displaces the co-repressor complex and replaces it with a transcription activation complex that includes Mastermind-like (MAML) proteins and histone acetylase p300, leading to transcriptional activation of Notch target genes (1-3). RBPSUH is also the DNA-binding partner for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2), a protein critical for latent viral transcription and immortalization of EBV-infected B cells (4,5).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Chromatin IP-seq, Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Nanog is a homeodomain-containing transcription factor that is essential for the maintenance of pluripotency and self renewal in embryonic stem cells (1). Nanog expression is controlled by a network of factors including Sox2 and the key pluripotency regulator Oct-4 (1). Recent advances in somatic cell reprogramming have utilized viral expression of combinations of transcription factors including nanog, Oct-4, Sox2, KLF4, c-Myc, and LIN28 (2,3).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Chromatin IP-seq, Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Chromosomal translocations result in misregulation of the proto-oncogene BCL6 in patients with B cell-derived non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (1). The BCL6 gene is selectively expressed in mature B cells and encodes a nuclear phosphoprotein that belongs to the BTB/POZ zinc finger family of transcription factors (2,3). BCL6 protein can bind to target DNA sequences of Stat6 and, analogous to Stat6, modulate the expression of interleukin-4-induced genes (4). Furthermore, BCL6 restrains p53-dependent senescence, making BCL6-active tumors functionally p53-negative (5). The mitogen-activated protein kinases, Erk1 and Erk2, but not JNK, phosphorylate BCL6 at multiple sites. Phosphorylation of BCL6 at Ser333 and Ser343 results in degradation of BCL6 by the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway in B cells (6,7). In addition, BCL6 is acetylated and its transcriptional repressor function is inhibited by the transcriptional co-activator p300 (8).

$260
100 µl
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Androgen receptor (AR), a zinc finger transcription factor belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily, is activated by phosphorylation and dimerization upon ligand binding (1). This promotes nuclear localization and binding of AR to androgen response elements in androgen target genes. Research studies have shown that AR plays a crucial role in several stages of male development and the progression of prostate cancer (2,3).

$260
100 µl
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: The T-box family of transcription factors is named for their shared homology with the DNA binding domain of the mouse brachyury (T) gene product. Members of this family bind DNA and are capable of transcriptional activation. They also have evolutionarily conserved expression patterns and roles in embryonic development, primarily mesoderm development (1). EOMES, or Tbr2 (T-box brain 2), is a master regulator of mesoderm formation that is also essential for trophoblast formation, gastrulation, neurogenesis and the differentiation of certain T cell subsets. Embryos from EOMES knock-out mice die soon after implantation due to their inability to develop a trophoblast (2,3). Conditional neural knock out mice show defects in development of a specific population of neural progenators known as Intermediate Progenator Cells (IPCs) that give rise only to neurons (4,5). These cells are formed from the radial glia in the ventricular and sub-ventricular zones of the cortex. Expression of EOMES increases as cells develop from radial glia to IPCs and then decreases as IPCs progress to neurons. Recent evidence suggests that EOMES and IPCs may also play a role neurogenesis in the adult hippocampal SGZ (5). EOMES is also a key transcription factor for memory T cells and for full effector differentiation of CD8+ T cells (6). Expression of EOMES is induced in CD8+ T cells following viral infection and bacterial infection where sufficient IL-12 has been produced to elicit acute host cell response (7).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Oct-4 (POU5F1) is a transcription factor highly expressed in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells and embryonic germ cells (1). A network of key factors that includes Oct-4, Nanog, and Sox2 is necessary for the maintenance of pluripotent potential, and downregulation of Oct-4 has been shown to trigger cell differentiation (2,3). Research studies have demonstrated that Oct-4 is a useful germ cell tumor marker (4). Oct-4 exists as two splice variants, Oct-4A and Oct-4B (5). Recent studies have suggested that the Oct-4A isoform has the ability to confer and sustain pluripotency, while Oct-4B may exist in some somatic, non-pluripotent cells (6,7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Chromosomal translocations result in misregulation of the proto-oncogene BCL6 in patients with B cell-derived non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (1). The BCL6 gene is selectively expressed in mature B cells and encodes a nuclear phosphoprotein that belongs to the BTB/POZ zinc finger family of transcription factors (2,3). BCL6 protein can bind to target DNA sequences of Stat6 and, analogous to Stat6, modulate the expression of interleukin-4-induced genes (4). Furthermore, BCL6 restrains p53-dependent senescence, making BCL6-active tumors functionally p53-negative (5). The mitogen-activated protein kinases, Erk1 and Erk2, but not JNK, phosphorylate BCL6 at multiple sites. Phosphorylation of BCL6 at Ser333 and Ser343 results in degradation of BCL6 by the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway in B cells (6,7). In addition, BCL6 is acetylated and its transcriptional repressor function is inhibited by the transcriptional co-activator p300 (8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

$129
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Androgen receptor (AR), a zinc finger transcription factor belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily, is activated by phosphorylation and dimerization upon ligand binding (1). This promotes nuclear localization and binding of AR to androgen response elements in androgen target genes. Research studies have shown that AR plays a crucial role in several stages of male development and the progression of prostate cancer (2,3).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The serum response factor (SRF) is a 67 kDa phospho-protein that, together with auxiliary factors, modulates transcription of immediate early genes containing serum response elements at their promoters (1,2). SRF contains several phosphorylation sites (3), but functional consequences of phosphorylation have not been identified unequivocally. Several growth factor- and calcium-regulated kinases, such as p90RSK and CaM kinase IV, can phosphorylate SRF at Ser103 (4,5), and Ser103 of SRF is also a nuclear target for MAPKAP kinase 2 (6).