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Monoclonal Antibody Flow Cytometry Myeloid Cell Differentiation

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: AML1 (also known as Runx1, CBFA2, and PEBP2αB) is a member of the core binding factor (CBF) family of transcription factors (1,2). It is required for normal development of all hematopoietic lineages (3-5). AML1 forms a heterodimeric DNA binding complex with its partner protein CBFβ and regulates the expression of cellular genes by binding to promoter and enhancer elements. AML1 is commonly translocated in hematopoietic cancers: chromosomal translocations include t(8;21) AML1-ETO, t(12;21) TEL-AML, and t(8;21) AML-M2 (6). Phosphorylation of AML1 on several potential serine and threonine sites, including Ser249, is thought to occur in an Erk-dependent manner (7,8).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated AML1 (D33G6) XP® Rabbit mAb #4336.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: AML1 (also known as Runx1, CBFA2, and PEBP2αB) is a member of the core binding factor (CBF) family of transcription factors (1,2). It is required for normal development of all hematopoietic lineages (3-5). AML1 forms a heterodimeric DNA binding complex with its partner protein CBFβ and regulates the expression of cellular genes by binding to promoter and enhancer elements. AML1 is commonly translocated in hematopoietic cancers: chromosomal translocations include t(8;21) AML1-ETO, t(12;21) TEL-AML, and t(8;21) AML-M2 (6). Phosphorylation of AML1 on several potential serine and threonine sites, including Ser249, is thought to occur in an Erk-dependent manner (7,8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Methylation of DNA at cytosine residues is a heritable, epigenetic modification that is critical for proper regulation of gene expression, genomic imprinting, and mammalian development (1,2). 5-methylcytosine is a repressive epigenetic mark established de novo by two enzymes, DNMT3a and DNMT3b, and is maintained by DNMT1 (3, 4). 5-methylcytosine was originally thought to be passively depleted during DNA replication. However, subsequent studies have shown that Ten-Eleven Translocation (TET) proteins TET1, TET2, and TET3 can catalyze the oxidation of methylated cytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) (5). Additionally, TET proteins can further oxidize 5-hmC to form 5-formylcytosine (5-fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5-caC), both of which are excised by thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG), effectively linking cytosine oxidation to the base excision repair pathway and supporting active cytosine demethylation (6,7). TET2 is the most frequently mutated gene in myeloid dysplastic syndrome (MDS), a dysplasia of myeloid, megakaryocytic, and/or erythroid cell lineages, of which 30% progress to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (8, 9). It is also mutated in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (10). TET2 protein expression is often reduced in solid tumors such as prostate cancer, melanoma, and oral squamous cell carcinoma (11-13).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The NF-κB/Rel transcription factors are present in the cytosol in an inactive state complexed with the inhibitory IκB proteins (1-3). Activation occurs via phosphorylation of IκBα at Ser32 and Ser36 followed by proteasome-mediated degradation that results in the release and nuclear translocation of active NF-κB (3-7). IκBα phosphorylation and resulting Rel-dependent transcription are activated by a highly diverse group of extracellular signals including inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines. Kinases that phosphorylate IκB at these activating sites have been identified (8).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated IκBα (L35A5) Mouse mAb (Amino-terminal Antigen) #4814.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The NF-κB/Rel transcription factors are present in the cytosol in an inactive state complexed with the inhibitory IκB proteins (1-3). Activation occurs via phosphorylation of IκBα at Ser32 and Ser36 followed by proteasome-mediated degradation that results in the release and nuclear translocation of active NF-κB (3-7). IκBα phosphorylation and resulting Rel-dependent transcription are activated by a highly diverse group of extracellular signals including inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines. Kinases that phosphorylate IκB at these activating sites have been identified (8).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated IκBα (L35A5) Mouse mAb (Amino-terminal Antigen) #4814.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The NF-κB/Rel transcription factors are present in the cytosol in an inactive state complexed with the inhibitory IκB proteins (1-3). Activation occurs via phosphorylation of IκBα at Ser32 and Ser36 followed by proteasome-mediated degradation that results in the release and nuclear translocation of active NF-κB (3-7). IκBα phosphorylation and resulting Rel-dependent transcription are activated by a highly diverse group of extracellular signals including inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines. Kinases that phosphorylate IκB at these activating sites have been identified (8).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 647 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated IκBα (L35A5) Mouse mAb (Amino-terminal Antigen) #4814.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The NF-κB/Rel transcription factors are present in the cytosol in an inactive state complexed with the inhibitory IκB proteins (1-3). Activation occurs via phosphorylation of IκBα at Ser32 and Ser36 followed by proteasome-mediated degradation that results in the release and nuclear translocation of active NF-κB (3-7). IκBα phosphorylation and resulting Rel-dependent transcription are activated by a highly diverse group of extracellular signals including inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines. Kinases that phosphorylate IκB at these activating sites have been identified (8).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Pacific Blue™ fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated antibody IκBα (L35A5) Mouse mAb (Amino-terminal Antigen) #4814.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The NF-κB/Rel transcription factors are present in the cytosol in an inactive state complexed with the inhibitory IκB proteins (1-3). Activation occurs via phosphorylation of IκBα at Ser32 and Ser36 followed by proteasome-mediated degradation that results in the release and nuclear translocation of active NF-κB (3-7). IκBα phosphorylation and resulting Rel-dependent transcription are activated by a highly diverse group of extracellular signals including inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines. Kinases that phosphorylate IκB at these activating sites have been identified (8).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in mouse cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated TET2 (D6C7K) Rabbit mAb (Mouse Specific) #36449.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Methylation of DNA at cytosine residues is a heritable, epigenetic modification that is critical for proper regulation of gene expression, genomic imprinting, and mammalian development (1,2). 5-methylcytosine is a repressive epigenetic mark established de novo by two enzymes, DNMT3a and DNMT3b, and is maintained by DNMT1 (3, 4). 5-methylcytosine was originally thought to be passively depleted during DNA replication. However, subsequent studies have shown that Ten-Eleven Translocation (TET) proteins TET1, TET2, and TET3 can catalyze the oxidation of methylated cytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) (5). Additionally, TET proteins can further oxidize 5-hmC to form 5-formylcytosine (5-fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5-caC), both of which are excised by thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG), effectively linking cytosine oxidation to the base excision repair pathway and supporting active cytosine demethylation (6,7). TET2 is the most frequently mutated gene in myeloid dysplastic syndrome (MDS), a dysplasia of myeloid, megakaryocytic, and/or erythroid cell lineages, of which 30% progress to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (8, 9). It is also mutated in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (10). TET2 protein expression is often reduced in solid tumors such as prostate cancer, melanoma, and oral squamous cell carcinoma (11-13).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Jagged1 (D4Y1R) Rabbit mAb #70109.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Notch signaling is activated upon engagement of the Notch receptor with its ligands, the DSL (Delta, Serrate, Lag2) proteins of single-pass type I membrane proteins. The DSL proteins contain multiple EGF-like repeats and a DSL domain that is required for binding to Notch (1,2). Five DSL proteins have been identified in mammals: Jagged1, Jagged2, Delta-like (DLL) 1, 3 and 4 (3). Ligand binding to the Notch receptor results in two sequential proteolytic cleavages of the receptor by the ADAM protease and the γ-secretase complex. The intracellular domain of Notch is released and then translocates to the nucleus where it activates transcription. Notch ligands may also be processed in a way similar to Notch, suggesting a bi-directional signaling through receptor-ligand interactions (4-6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Association of the receptor Fas with its ligand FasL triggers an apoptotic pathway that plays an important role in immune regulation, development, and progression of cancers (1,2). Loss of function mutation in either Fas (lpr mice) or FasL (gld mice) leads to lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly as a result of decreased apoptosis in CD4-CD8- T lymphocytes (3,4). FasL (CD95L, Apo-1L) is a type II transmembrane protein of 280 amino acids (runs at approximately 40 kDa upon glycosylation) that belongs to the TNF family, which also includes TNF-α, TRAIL, and TWEAK. Binding of FasL to its receptor triggers the formation of a death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) involving the recruitment of the adaptor protein FADD and caspase-8 (5). Activation of caspase-8 from this complex initiates a caspase cascade resulting in the activation of caspase-3 and subsequent cleavage of proteins leading to apoptosis. Unlike Fas, which is constitutively expressed by various cell types, FasL is predominantly expressed on activated T lymphocytes, NK cells, and at immune privileged sites (6). FasL is also expressed in several tumor types as a mechanism to evade immune surveillance (7). Similar to other members of the TNF family, FasL can be cleaved by metalloproteinases producing a 26 kDa trimeric soluble form (8,9).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 647 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Jagged1 (D4Y1R) XP® Rabbit mAb #70109.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Notch signaling is activated upon engagement of the Notch receptor with its ligands, the DSL (Delta, Serrate, Lag2) proteins of single-pass type I membrane proteins. The DSL proteins contain multiple EGF-like repeats and a DSL domain that is required for binding to Notch (1,2). Five DSL proteins have been identified in mammals: Jagged1, Jagged2, Delta-like (DLL) 1, 3 and 4 (3). Ligand binding to the Notch receptor results in two sequential proteolytic cleavages of the receptor by the ADAM protease and the γ-secretase complex. The intracellular domain of Notch is released and then translocates to the nucleus where it activates transcription. Notch ligands may also be processed in a way similar to Notch, suggesting a bi-directional signaling through receptor-ligand interactions (4-6).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) are a family of transcription factors that are critical for cellular differentiation, terminal function, and inflammatory response (1). Six members of the family have been characterized (C/EBPα, β, δ, γ, ε, and ζ) and are distributed in a variety of tissues (1). Translation from alternative start codons results in two isoforms of C/EBPα (p42 and p30), which are both strong transcriptional activators (2). It has been reported that insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I stimulate the dephosphorylation of C/EBPα, which may play a key role in insulin-induced repression of GLUT4 transcription (3). Phosphorylation of C/EBPα at Thr222, Thr226, and Ser230 by GSK-3 seems to be required for adipogenesis (4).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated C/EBPα (D56F10) XP® Rabbit mAb #8178.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) are a family of transcription factors that are critical for cellular differentiation, terminal function, and inflammatory response (1). Six members of the family have been characterized (C/EBPα, β, δ, γ, ε, and ζ) and are distributed in a variety of tissues (1). Translation from alternative start codons results in two isoforms of C/EBPα (p42 and p30), which are both strong transcriptional activators (2). It has been reported that insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I stimulate the dephosphorylation of C/EBPα, which may play a key role in insulin-induced repression of GLUT4 transcription (3). Phosphorylation of C/EBPα at Thr222, Thr226, and Ser230 by GSK-3 seems to be required for adipogenesis (4).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Nuclear retinoic acid (RA) receptors (RARs) consist of three subtypes encoded by separate genes: α (NR1B1), β (NR1B2), and γ (NR1B3). For each subtype, there are at least two isoforms, which are generated by differential promoter usage and alternative splicing and differ only in their N-terminal regions. Retinoids, which are metabolites of vitamin A, serve as ligands for RARs (1). RARs function as ligand-dependent transcriptional regulators and are found to be heterodimerized with retinoid X receptors (RXRs). These transcriptionally active dimers regulate the expression of genes involved in cellular differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis (2,3). Consequently, RARs play critical roles in a variety of biological processes, including development, reproduction, immunity, and organogenesis (4-6). RAR mutations, fusion proteins, altered expression levels, or aberrant post-translational modifications result in multiple diseases due to altered RAR function and disruption of homeostasis.In contrast to the ubiquitously expressed RARα subtype, RARγ displays a complex tissue-specific expression pattern (7). The hematopoietic system expresses significant levels of RARγ, and a recent study identified a role for RARγ in hematopoietic stem cell maintenance (8). RARγ is the predominant subtype in human and mouse epidermis, representing 90% of the RARs in this tissue (9-11). Given the high level of RARγ expression in the skin, it has been suggested that this nuclear receptor participates in a transcriptional program that governs maintenance and differentiation of normal epidermis and skin appendages. The transcriptional activity of RARγ is under stringent control, in part, through retinoic acid-induced phosphorylation and proteasomal degradation (12).

$129
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Notch signaling is activated upon engagement of the Notch receptor with its ligands, the DSL (Delta, Serrate, Lag2) proteins of single-pass type I membrane proteins. The DSL proteins contain multiple EGF-like repeats and a DSL domain that is required for binding to Notch (1,2). Five DSL proteins have been identified in mammals: Jagged1, Jagged2, Delta-like (DLL) 1, 3 and 4 (3). Ligand binding to the Notch receptor results in two sequential proteolytic cleavages of the receptor by the ADAM protease and the γ-secretase complex. The intracellular domain of Notch is released and then translocates to the nucleus where it activates transcription. Notch ligands may also be processed in a way similar to Notch, suggesting a bi-directional signaling through receptor-ligand interactions (4-6).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Jagged1 (D4Y1R) XP® Rabbit mAb #70109.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Notch signaling is activated upon engagement of the Notch receptor with its ligands, the DSL (Delta, Serrate, Lag2) proteins of single-pass type I membrane proteins. The DSL proteins contain multiple EGF-like repeats and a DSL domain that is required for binding to Notch (1,2). Five DSL proteins have been identified in mammals: Jagged1, Jagged2, Delta-like (DLL) 1, 3 and 4 (3). Ligand binding to the Notch receptor results in two sequential proteolytic cleavages of the receptor by the ADAM protease and the γ-secretase complex. The intracellular domain of Notch is released and then translocates to the nucleus where it activates transcription. Notch ligands may also be processed in a way similar to Notch, suggesting a bi-directional signaling through receptor-ligand interactions (4-6).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated PU.1 (9G7) Rabbit mAb #2258.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: PU.1 is a member of the Ets family of transcription factors and activates target genes through the purine-rich PU-box (1). PU.1 plays a pivotal role in the differentiation of myeloid cells and lymphocytes and is expressed in several hematopoietic cells including B lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, mast cells, early erythroid cells, and megakaryocytes (1,2). The concentration of PU.1 is critical for both the determination of hematopoietic cell lineage and the regulation of differentiation versus stem cell proliferation (3,4). In addition, PU.1 activity is influenced by phosphorylation and interactions with other hematopoietic transcription factors. Phosphorylation of PU.1 at Ser146 by CK2 promotes binding to IRF4 and synergistic activation through the immunoglobulin κ 3' enhancer (5). Treatment of pro-B cells with IL-3 leads to phosphorylation of PU.1 at Ser140, resulting in increased PU.1 activity and activation of the anti-apoptotic gene MCL-1 (6). GATA1 binding blocks PU.1 activity during erythroid cell development (7). Overexpression of PU.1 resulting from proviral insertion during Friend virus infection can induce erythroleukemia, while reduced expression has been associated with acute myeloid leukemia (8).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis of human cells. The unconjugated antibody #2258 reacts with human and mouse PU.1 protein. CST expects that PU.1 (9G7) Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 488 Conjugate) will also recognize PU.1 in these species.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: PU.1 is a member of the Ets family of transcription factors and activates target genes through the purine-rich PU-box (1). PU.1 plays a pivotal role in the differentiation of myeloid cells and lymphocytes and is expressed in several hematopoietic cells including B lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, mast cells, early erythroid cells, and megakaryocytes (1,2). The concentration of PU.1 is critical for both the determination of hematopoietic cell lineage and the regulation of differentiation versus stem cell proliferation (3,4). In addition, PU.1 activity is influenced by phosphorylation and interactions with other hematopoietic transcription factors. Phosphorylation of PU.1 at Ser146 by CK2 promotes binding to IRF4 and synergistic activation through the immunoglobulin κ 3' enhancer (5). Treatment of pro-B cells with IL-3 leads to phosphorylation of PU.1 at Ser140, resulting in increased PU.1 activity and activation of the anti-apoptotic gene MCL-1 (6). GATA1 binding blocks PU.1 activity during erythroid cell development (7). Overexpression of PU.1 resulting from proviral insertion during Friend virus infection can induce erythroleukemia, while reduced expression has been associated with acute myeloid leukemia (8).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 647 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis of human cells. The unconjugated antibody #2258 reacts with human and mouse PU.1 protein. CST expects that PU.1 (9G7) Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 647 Conjugate) will also recognize PU.1 in these species.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: PU.1 is a member of the Ets family of transcription factors and activates target genes through the purine-rich PU-box (1). PU.1 plays a pivotal role in the differentiation of myeloid cells and lymphocytes and is expressed in several hematopoietic cells including B lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, mast cells, early erythroid cells, and megakaryocytes (1,2). The concentration of PU.1 is critical for both the determination of hematopoietic cell lineage and the regulation of differentiation versus stem cell proliferation (3,4). In addition, PU.1 activity is influenced by phosphorylation and interactions with other hematopoietic transcription factors. Phosphorylation of PU.1 at Ser146 by CK2 promotes binding to IRF4 and synergistic activation through the immunoglobulin κ 3' enhancer (5). Treatment of pro-B cells with IL-3 leads to phosphorylation of PU.1 at Ser140, resulting in increased PU.1 activity and activation of the anti-apoptotic gene MCL-1 (6). GATA1 binding blocks PU.1 activity during erythroid cell development (7). Overexpression of PU.1 resulting from proviral insertion during Friend virus infection can induce erythroleukemia, while reduced expression has been associated with acute myeloid leukemia (8).