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Monoclonal Antibody Ihc-Leica® bond™ Mast Cell Activation

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, IHC-Leica® Bond™, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: FcγRIIB (CD32B) is a low affinity, IgG Fc-binding receptor expressed on B cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs) (1-3). It is the inhibitory Fc receptor and signals through an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) within its carboxy-terminal cytoplasmic tail (2). Binding of immune complexes to FcγRIIB results in tyrosine phosphorylation of the ITIM motif at Tyr292 and recruitment of the phosphatase SHIP, which mediates inhibitory effects on immune cell activation (2,4). In this way, FcγRIIB suppresses the effects of activating Fc-binding receptors (3). For example, mice deficient for FcγRIIB have greater T cell and DC responses following injection of immune complexes (5, 6). In addition, FcγRIIB plays a role in B cell affinity maturation (7). Signaling through FcγRIIB in the absence of signaling through the B cell receptor (BCR) is proapoptotic, while signaling through FcγRIIB and the BCR simultaneously attenuates the apoptotic signal and results in selection of B cells with higher antigen affinity (7).

$129
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: IHC-Leica® Bond™, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: c-Kit is a member of the subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases that includes PDGF, CSF-1, and FLT3/flk-2 receptors (1,2). It plays a critical role in activation and growth in a number of cell types including hematopoietic stem cells, mast cells, melanocytes, and germ cells (3). Upon binding with its stem cell factor (SCF) ligand, c-Kit undergoes dimerization/oligomerization and autophosphorylation. Activation of c-Kit results in the recruitment and tyrosine phosphorylation of downstream SH2-containing signaling components including PLCγ, the p85 subunit of PI3 kinase, SHP2, and CrkL (4). Molecular lesions that impair the kinase activity of c-Kit are associated with a variety of developmental disorders (5), and mutations that constitutively activate c-Kit can lead to pathogenesis of mastocytosis and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (6). Tyr719 is located in the kinase insert region of the catalytic domain. c-Kit phosphorylated at Tyr719 binds to the p85 subunit of PI3 kinase in vitro and in vivo (7).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, IHC-Leica® Bond™, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Galectins are a family of β-galactose binding proteins that are characterized by an affinity for poly-N-acetyllactosamine-enriched glycoconjugates and a carbohydrate-binding site (1,2). Members of the galectin family have been implicated in a variety of biological functions, including cell adhesion (3), growth regulation (4), cytokine production (5), T-cell apoptosis (6), and immune responses (7).Galectin-9 is induced by proinflammatory stimuli, including IFN-γ, TNF-α, and TLR ligands, and regulates various immune responses through interaction with its ligand TIM-3 (8, 9). Binding of galectin-9 to TIM-3 expressed by Th1 CD4 T cells resulted in T cell death (9). On the other hand, galectin-9 treatment of tumor-bearing mice increased the number of IFN-γ-producing TIM-3+ CD8 T cells and TIM-3+ dendritic cells (10). Transgenic overexpression of either TIM-3 or galectin-9 in mice led to an increase in cells with a myeloid-derived suppressor cell phenotype and inhibition of immune responses (11). CD44 is also proposed to be a receptor for galectin-9, and interaction of galectin-9 with CD44 expressed by induced regulatory T (iTreg) cells enhanced the stability of function of iTreg cells. In addition, galectin-9 was recently demonstrated to bind Dectin-1 expressed by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma-infiltrating macrophages, resulting in tolerogenic macrophage reprogramming and suppression of anti-tumor immunity. Increased galectin-9 expression has been observed in several cancer types, including lung, liver, breast, and kidney (12). Alternative splicing of the galectin-9 transcript leads to several isoforms (13).

$269
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: IHC-Leica® Bond™, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin)

Background: Chromosomal translocations result in misregulation of the proto-oncogene BCL6 in patients with B cell-derived non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (1). The BCL6 gene is selectively expressed in mature B cells and encodes a nuclear phosphoprotein that belongs to the BTB/POZ zinc finger family of transcription factors (2,3). BCL6 protein can bind to target DNA sequences of Stat6 and, analogous to Stat6, modulate the expression of interleukin-4-induced genes (4). Furthermore, BCL6 restrains p53-dependent senescence, making BCL6-active tumors functionally p53-negative (5). The mitogen-activated protein kinases, Erk1 and Erk2, but not JNK, phosphorylate BCL6 at multiple sites. Phosphorylation of BCL6 at Ser333 and Ser343 results in degradation of BCL6 by the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway in B cells (6,7). In addition, BCL6 is acetylated and its transcriptional repressor function is inhibited by the transcriptional co-activator p300 (8).